Table of Contents

Executive summary 781

19.1 Introduction 782

19.1.1 Purpose, scope and structure of the chapter 782

Box 19.1. UNFCCC Article 2 783

Box 19.2. Reference for temperature levels 783

19.1.2 Conceptual framework for the identification and assessment of key vulnerabilities 783

19.2 Criteria for selecting 'key' vulnerabilities 785

19.3 Identification and assessment of key vulnerabilities 786

19.3.1 Introduction to Table 19.1 787

19.3.2 Global social systems 790

19.3.3 Regional vulnerabilities 791

19.3.4 Ecosystems and biodiversity 792

19.3.5 Geophysical systems 792

19.3.6 Extreme events 795

19.3.7 Update on 'Reasons for Concern' 795

19.4 Assessment of response strategies to avoid key vulnerabilities 797

19.4.1 Adaptation as a response strategy 797

19.4.2 Mitigation 798

Box 19.3. Uncertainties in the assessment of response strategies 799

19.4.3 Synthesis 803

19.4.4 Research needs 804

References 805

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