Table of Contents

Executive summary 813

20.1 Introduction: setting the context 814

20.2 A synthesis of new knowledge relating to impacts and adaptation 814

20.3 Impacts and adaptation in the context of multiple stresses 816

20.3.1 A catalogue of multiple stresses 816

20.3.2 Factors that support sustainable development 816

20.3.3 Two-way causality between sustainable development and adaptive capacity 817

20.4 Implications for environmental quality 819

20.5 Implications for risk, hazard and disaster management 820

20.6 Global and aggregate impacts 821

20.6.1 History and present state of aggregate impact estimates 821

20.6.2 Spatially-explicit methods: global impacts of climate change 824

20.7 Implications for regional, sub-regional, local and sectoral development; access to resources and technology; equity 826

20.7.1 Millennium Development Goals -

a 2015 time slice 826

20.7.2 Sectoral and regional implications 827

20.7.3 The complementarity roles of mitigation and enhanced adaptive capacity 827

20.8 Opportunities, co-benefits and challenges for adaptation 832

20.8.1 Challenges and opportunities for mainstreaming adaptation into national, regional and local development processes 832

20.8.2 Participatory processes in research and practice 832

Box 20.1 Role of local and indigenous knowledge in adaptation and sustainability research 833

20.8.3 Bringing climate-change adaptation and development communities together to promote sustainable development 834

20.9 Uncertainties, unknowns and priorities for research 836

References 837

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