Table of Contents

Executive summary 583

13.1 Summary of knowledge assessed in the Third Assessment Report 584

13.2 Current sensitivity/vulnerability 584

13.2.1 What is distinctive about the Latin America region? 584

13.2.2 Weather and climate stresses 585

13.2.3 Non-climatic stresses 587

13.2.4 Past and current trends 588

13.2.5 Current adaptation 591

13.3 Assumptions about future trends 593

13.3.1 Climate 593

13.3.2 Land-use changes 594

13.3.3 Development 595

13.4 Summary of expected key future impacts and vulnerabilities 596

13.4.1 Natural ecosystems 596

13.4.2 Agriculture 597

13.4.3 Water resources 597

13.4.4 Coasts 599

13.4.5 Human health 599

13.5 Adaptation: practices, options and constraints 601

13.5.1 Practices and options 601

13.5.2 Constraints on adaptation 604

13.6 Case studies 604

Box 13.1 Amazonia: a 'hotspot' of the Earth system 604

Box 13.2 Adaptation capacity of South American highlands' pre-Colombian communities 605

13.7 Conclusions and implications for sustainable development 606

13.8 Key uncertainties and investigation priorities 607

References 607

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