Autonomous and planned adaptation measures to protect the loss of beaches, based mainly on soft engineering practices.
Modern satellite observation systems of sea and continent similar to the international programmes TOGA and CLIVAR, and capacity-building for at least 50 scientists in oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological modelling and GIS systems.
Flooding and SLR
Monitoring systems in order to: track impacts on the coasts; restore degraded areas; develop an institutional framework for integrated coastal management (ICM); define setback regulations; improve local knowledge on beach nourishment; develop contingency plans against flooding; assess socio-economic and environmental needs; encourage stakeholders' participation.
(Kokot, 2004; Menéndez and Ré, 2005)
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