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Abdalla, A.A., 2006: Environmental degradation and conflict in Darfur: experiences and development options. Environmental Degradation as a Cause for Conflict in Darfur: Conference Proceedings, Khartoum, Sudan, December 2004, University for Peace, Addis Ababa, 112 pp. 0a%20cause%20of%20conflict%20in%20Darfur%20(.pdf.

Abdulai, A. and A. Crolerees, 2001: Determinants of income diversification amongst rural households in Southern Mali. Food Policy, 26,437-452.

Abeku, T.A., S.J. De Vlas, G. Borsboom, A. Tadege, Y. Gebreyesus, H. Gebrey-ohannes, D. Alamirew, A. Seifu and Co-authors, 2004: Effects of meteorological factors on epidemic malaria in Ethiopia: a statistical modelling approach based on theoretical reasoning. Parasitology, 128,585-593.

Abou-Hadid, A.F., 2006: Assessment of impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to climate change in North Africa: food production and water resources. AIACC Final Report (AF 90), Washington, District of Columbia, 148 pp.

Adger, N. and K. Vincent, 2005: Uncertainty in adaptive capacity. C. R. Geosci, 337,399-410.

Adger, N., N. Brooks, M. Kelly, G. Bentham, M. Agnew and S. Eriksen, 2004: New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Technical Report 7, Tyn-dall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 128 pp.

AfDB (African Development Bank), Asian Development Bank, UK DFID, Netherlands DGIS, European Commission DG for Development, German BMZ, OECD, UNDP, UNEP and World Bank, 2002: Poverty and Climate Change: Reducing Vulnerability of the Poor Through Adaptation, UNEP, 56 pp. pdf.

Afrane, Y.A., B.W. Lawson,A.K. Githeko and G. Yan, 2005: Effects of microclimatic changes caused by land use and land cover on duration of gonotrophic cycles of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya highlands. J. Med. Entomol, 42,974-980.

African Union, 2005: Status of food security and prospects for agricultural development in Africa: 2005. AU Ministerial Conference of Ministers of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, 26 pp.

Agoumi, A., 2003: Vulnerability of North African countries to climatic changes: adaptation and implementation strategies for climatic change. Developing Perspectives on Climate Change: Issues and Analysis from Developing Countries and Countries with Economies in Transition. IISD/Climate Change Knowledge Network, 14 pp.

Agrawala, S., Ed., 2005: Bridge over Troubled Waters: Linking Climate Change and Development. OECD, Paris, 154 pp.

AGRHYMET, 2004: Rapport synthèse de l'enquête générale sur les itinéraires d'adaptation des populations locales à la variabilité et aux changements climatiques conduite sur les projets pilotes par AGRHYMET et l'UQAM, par Hubert N'Djafa Ouaga, 13 pp.

Ajibade, L.T., 2003: A methodology for the collection and evaluation of farmers' indigenous environmental knowledge in developing countries. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, 2,99-113.

Ajibade, L.T. and O. Shokemi, 2003: Indigenous approaches to weather forecasting in Asa L.G.A., Kwara State, Nigeria. Indilinga: African Journal of Indige nous Knowledge Systems, 2,37-44.

AMCEN/UNEP, 2002: Africa Environment Outlook: Past, Present and Future Perspectives. Earthprint, Stevenage, 410 pp.

Anderssen, L., J. Wilk, M.C. Todd, D.A. Hughes, A. Earle, D. Kniveton, R. Lay-berry, H.H.G. Savenije, 2006: Impact of climate change and development scenarios on flow patterns in the Okavango River, J. Hydrol., 331,43-57.

Archer, E.R.M., 2003: Identifying underserved end-user groups in the provision of climate information. B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84,1525-1532.

Armah, K.A., G. Wiafe and D.G. Kpelle, 2005: Sea-level rise and coastal biodiversity in West Africa: a case study from Ghana. Climate Change and Africa, P.S. Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 204-217.

Arnell, N.W., 2004: Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environ. Chang., 14,31-52.

Arnell, N.W., 2006a: Global impacts of abrupt climate change: an initial assessment . Working Paper 99, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 37 pp.

Arnell, N.W., 2006b: Climate change and water resources: a global perspective. Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change, H.J. Schellnhuber, W. Cramer, N. Nakicenovic, T. Wigley and G. Yohe, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 167-175.

Arnell, N.W., M.G.R. Cannell, M. Hulme, R.S. Kovats, J.F.B. Mitchell, R.J. Nicholls, M.L. Parry, M.T.J. Livermore and A. White, 2002: The consequences of CO2 stabilisation for the impacts of climate change. Climatic Change, 53, 413-446.

Arrow, K., P. Dasgupta, L. Goulder, G. Daily, P. Ehrlich, G. Heal, S. Levin, K.-G. Maler and Co-authors, 2004: Are we consuming too much? J. Econ. Perspect., 18,147-172.

Ashton, P.J., 2002: Avoiding conflicts over Africa's water resources. Ambio, 31, 236-242.

Attaher, S., M.A. Medany, A.A. Abdel Aziz and A. El-Gindy, 2006: Irrigation-water demands under current and future climate conditions in Egypt. Misr. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 23,1077-1089.

Balint-Kurti, D., 2005: Tin trade fuels Congo War. News24, 07/03/2005. http://www.news24 .com/News24/Africa/Features/0 ,,2-11 -37_1672558,00 .html.

Balk, D.,A. Storeygard,M. Levy, J. Gaskell,M. SharmaandR. Flor, 2005: Child hunger in the developing world: an analysis of environmental and social correlates. Food Policy, 30,584-611.

Batterbury, S. and A. Warren, 2001: The African Sahel 25 years after the great drought: assessing progress and moving towards new agendas and approaches. Global Environ. Chang., 11,1-8.

Baylis, M. and A.K. Githeko, 2006: The effects of climate change on infectious diseases of animals. UK Foresight Project, Infectious Diseases: Preparing for the Future. Office of Science and Innovation, London, 35 pp.

Beg, N., J. Corfee Morlot, O. Davidson, Y. Afrane-Okesse, L. Tyani, F. Denton, Y. Sokona, J.P. Thomas and Co-authors, 2002: Linkages between climate change and sustainable development. Clim. Policy, 2,129-144.

Benhin, J.K.A., 2006: Climate change and South African agriculture: impacts and adaptation options. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 21, Special Series on Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 78 pp.

Benson, C. and E.J. Clay, 2004: Understanding the Economic and Financial Impacts of Natural Disasters. Disaster Risk Management Series No. 4. World Bank Publications, Washington, District of Columbia, 130 pp.

Biggs, R.,E. Bohensky, P.V. Desanker, C. Fabricius,T. Lynam,A.A. Misselhorn,

C. Musvoto, M. Mutale and Co-authors, 2004: Nature Supporting People: The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Report. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, 68 pp.

Block, S. and P. Webb, 2001: The dynamics of livelihood diversification in postfamine Ethiopia. Food Policy, 26,333-350.

Bomhard, B., D.M. Richardson, J.S. Donaldson, G.O. Hughes, GF. Midgley, D.C. Raimondo, A.G. Rebelo, M. Rouget and W. Thuiller, 2005: Potential impacts of future land use and climate change on the Red List status of the Proteaceae in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Glob. Change Biol, 11,1452-1468.

Bounoua, L., G.J. Collatz, S.O. Los, P.J. Sellers, D.A. Dazlich, C.J. Tucker and

D.A. Randall, 2000: Sensitivity of climate to changes in NDVI. J. Climate, 13, 2277-2292.

Bounoua, L., R. DeFries, G.J. Collatz, P. Sellers and H. Khan, 2002: Effects of land cover conversion on surface climate. Climatic Change, 52,29-64.

Brooks, N., 2004: Drought in the African Sahel: long-term perspectives and future prospects. Working Paper 61, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 31 pp.

Brooks, N., W.N. Adger and P.M. Kelly, 2005: The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environ. Chang., 15,151-163.

Brovkin, V., 2002: Climate-vegetation interaction. J. Phys. IV, 12,57-72.

Bryceson, D., 2000: Rural Africa at the crossroads: livelihood practices and policies. Natural Resource Perspectives, 52,

Bryceson, DF., 2002: The scramble in Africa: reorienting rural livelihoods. World Dev., 30,725-739.

Bryceson, D.F., 2004: Agrarian vista or vortex: African rural livelihood policies. Review of African Political Economy, 31, 617-629.

Bryceson, D.F. and J. Fonseca, 2006: Risking death for survival: peasant responses to hunger and HIV/AIDS in Malawi. World Dev., 34,1654-1666.

Burke, E.J., S.J. Brown andN. Christidis,2006: Modelling the recent evolution of global drought and projections for the twenty-first century with the Hadley Centre climate model. J. Hydrometeorol., 7,1113-1125.

Center for International Earth Science Information Network, 2006: Where the Poor Are: An Atlas of Poverty. Columbia University, New York, 57 pp. http://www.

Chappell, A. and C.T. Agnew, 2004: Modelling climate change in West African Sahel rainfall (1931-90) as an artifact of changing station locations. Int. J. Cli-matol, 24,547-554.

Chen, H., A.K. Githeko, G. Zhou, J.I. Githure and G. Yan, 2006: New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya Highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission. Malaria J., 5,17.

Chen, S. and M. Ravallion, 2004: How have the world's poorest fared since the early 1980s? The World Bank Research Observer, 19,141-169.

Chigwada, J., 2005: Climate proofing infrastructure and diversifying livelihoods in Zimbabwe. IDS Bull, 36, S103-S116.

Christensen, J.H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R.K. Koli, W.-T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V.M. Rueda, L. Mearns, C.G. Menendez, J. Raisanen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr and P. Whetton, 2007: Regional climate projections. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 847-940.

Christie, F. and J. Hanlon, 2001: Mozambique and the Great Flood of2000. Indiana University Press, Indiana, 176 pp.

Clark, B.M., 2006: Climate change: a looming challenge for fisheries management in southern Africa. Mar. Policy, 30, 84-95.

Clark, B.M., S. Young and A. Richardson, 2003: Likely effects of global climate change on the purse seine fishery for Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis off the west coast of Southern Africa (SE Atlantic).

Claussen, M., V. Brovkin, A. Ganopolski, C. Kubatzki and V. Petoukhov, 2003: Climate change in northern Africa: the past is not the future. Climatic Change, 57,99-118.

Connor, S.J., P. Ceccato, T. Dinku, J. Omumbo, E.K. Grover-Kopec and M.C. Thomson, 2006: Using climate information for improved health in Africa: relevance, constraints and opportunities. Geospatial Health, 1,17-31.

Conway, D., 2005: From headwater tributaries to international river: observing and adapting to climate variability and change in the Nile Basin. Global Environ. Chang, 15,99-114.

Conway, D., C. Mould and W. Bewket, 2004: Over one century of rainfall and temperature observations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Int. J. Climatol, 24,77-91.

Conway, D., E. Allison, R. Felstead and M. Goulden, 2005: Rainfall variability in East Africa: implications for natural resources management and livelihoods. Philos. T. Roy. Soc.A, 363,49-54.

Coughenour, J. Hudson, P. Weisberg, C. Vogel and J.E. Ellis, 2004: Ecosystem modeling adds value to South African climate forecasts. Climatic Change, 64, 317-340.

Cullen,NJ.,T.Molg,G. Kaser,K. Hussein,K. Steffen and D.R. Hardy,2006: Kilimanjaro glaciers: recent areal extent from satellite data and new interpretation of observed 20th century retreat rates. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16502, doi: 10.1029/2006GL027084.

Cury, P. and L. Shannon, 2004: Regime shifts in upwelling ecosystems: observed changes and possible mechanisms in the northern and southern Benguela. Prog. Oceanogr, 60,223-243.

Dai, A., P.J. Lamb, K.E. Trenberth, M. Hulme, P.D. Jones and P. Xie, 2004: The recent Sahel drought is real. Int. J. Climatol., 24,1323-1331.

Davidson, O., K. Halsnaes, S. Huq,M. Kok, B. Metz, Y. Sokonaand J. Verhagen, 2003: The development and climate nexus: the case of sub-Saharan Africa. Clim. Policy, 3,97-113.

de Wit,M. and J. Stankiewicz, 2006: Changes in water supply across Africa with predicted climate change. Science, 311,1917-1921.

Dea, D. and I. Scoones, 2003: Networks of knowledge: how farmers and scientists understand soils and their fertility: a case study from Ethiopia. Oxford Development Studies, 31, 461-478.

DeFries, R.S., L. Bounoua and G.J. Collatz, 2002: Human modification of the landscape and surface climate in the next fifty years. Glob. Change Biol., 8,438458.

Desta, S. and L. Coppock, 2004: Pastoralism under pressure: tracking system change in southern Ethiopia. Hum. Ecol, 32,465-486.

Devereux, S., 2003: Policy options for increasing the contribution of social protection to food security. Forum for Food Security in Southern Africa, Overseas Development Institute, London, 35 pp.

Devereux, S. and S. Maxwell, Eds., 2001: Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa. ITDG Publishing, Pietermaritzburg, 361 pp.

DFID (Department for International Development), 2004: The impact of climate change on the vulnerability of the poor. Policy Division, Global Environmental Assets, Key sheet 3,6 pp.

Dilley, M., R.S. Chen, U. Deichmann, A.L. Lerner-Lam, M. Arnold, J. Agwe, P. Buys, O. Kjekstad and Co-authors, 2005: Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis. Disaster Risk Management Series No. 5. The World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 148 pp. /themes/default/pdfs/Hotspots.pdf.

Dixon, R.K., J. Smith and S. Guill, 2003: Life on the edge: vulnerability and adaptation of African ecosystems to global climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 8,93-113.

Dougherty, W. and B. Osman, 2005: Mainstreaming adaptation into national development plans. AIACC Second Regional Workshop for Africa and Indian Ocean Islands, Dakar, Senegal.

du Plessis C, D.K. Irurah and R.J. Scholes, 2003: The built environment and climate change in South Africa. Build. Res. Inf., 31,240-256.

Dwyer,E.S., S. Pinnock, J.M. Gregoire and J.M.C. Pereira, 2000: Global spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation fire as determined from satellite observations. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 21,1289-1302.

Easton, P. and M. Roland, 2000: Seeds of life: women and agricultural biodiversity in Africa. IK Notes 23. World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 4 pp.

ECA (Economic Commission for Africa), 2002: Harnessing technologies for sustainable development. Economic Commission for Africa Policy Research Report, Addis Ababa, 178 pp.

ECA (Economic Commission for Africa), 2005: Assessing sustainable development in Africa. Africa's Sustainable Development Bulletin. Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, 59 pp.

ECF (European Climate Forum) and Potsdam Institute, 2004: What is dangerous climate change? Initial Results of a Symposium on Key Vulnerable Regions, Climate Change and Article 2 of the UNFCCC, Buenos Aires. Beijing, 39 pp.

2006: Assessing the impacts of climate change on agriculture in Egypt: a ricardian approach. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Discussion Paper No. 16, Special Series on Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 1-33.

Eklundh, L. and L. Olsson, 2003: Vegetation trends for the African Sahel 19821999. Geophys. Res. Lett, 30,1430, doi:10.1029/2002GL016772.

El-Gindy, A., A.A. Abdel Azziz and E.A. El-Sahaar, 2001: Design of irrigation and drainage networks. Faculty of Agriculture lectures, Ain Shams University, 28 pp. (inArabic).

Ellis, F., 2000: Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 296 pp.

Ellis, F., 2003: Human vulnerability and food insecurity: policy implications. Forum for Food Security in Southern Africa, Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 47 pp.

Ellis, F. and G. Bahiigwa, 2003: Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Uganda. World Dev., 31,997-1013.

Ellis, F. andN. Mdoe, 2003: Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Tanzania. World Dev., 31,1367-1384.

EPIQ (Environmental Policy and Institutional Strengthening Indefinite Quantity, Water Policy Reform Activity, Agricultural Policy Reform Programme and Market-Based Incentives Team), 2002: Economic Instruments for Improved Water Resources Management in Egypt, Prepared for the United States Agency for International Development/Egypt, No. PCE-I-00-96-00002-00,173 pp.

Epstein, P.R. and E. Mills, Eds., 2005: Climate Change Futures: Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions. Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 142 pp.

Erasmus, B.F.N.,A.S. van Jaarsveld,SL. Chown,M. Kshatriya and K.J. Wessels, 2002: Vulnerability of South Africa animal taxa to climate change. Glob. Change Biol, 8,679-693.

Eriksen, S., 2004: Building adaptive capacity in a 'glocal' world: examples from Norway and Africa. ESS Bulletin, 2,18-26.

Eriksen, S., 2005: The role of indigenous plants in household adaptation to climate change: the Kenyan experience. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 248-259.

Eriksen, S .H. and J. Silva, 2003: The impact of economic liberalisation on climate vulnerability among farmers in Mozambique. IHDP Open Meeting, 16-18 October 2003, Montreal, 15 pp.

Eriksen, S.H., K. Brown and P.M. Kelly, 2005: The dynamics of vulnerability: locating coping strategies in Kenya and Tanzania. Geogr. J., 171,287-305.

ESMAP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program), 2005: The vulnerability of African countries to oil price shocks: major factors and policy options - the case of oil importing countries. World Bank Report 308/5, Washington, District of Columbia, 76 pp.

FAO, 2004: Locust crisis to hit northwest Africa again: situation deteriorating in the Sahel. FAO News Release, 17 September 2004.

FAO, 2005: The State of Food and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 211 pp.

Fauchereau, N., S. Trzaska, Y. Richard, P. Roucou and P. Camberlin, 2003: Sea-surface temperature co-variability in the southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans and its connections with the atmospheric circulation in the southern hemisphere. Int. J. Climatol., 23,663-677.

Fekete, B.M., C.J. Vorosmarty, J.O. Roads and C.J. Willmott ,2004: Uncertainties in precipitation and their impact on runoff estimates. J. Climate, 17,294-304.

Ferguson, J., 2006: Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Duke University Press, Durham and London, 257 pp.

Few R., M. Ahern, F. Matthies and S. Kovats, 2004: Floods, health and climate change: a strategic review. Working Paper 63, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 138 pp.

Fiki, O.C. and B. Lee, 2004: Conflict generation, conflict management and self-organizing capabilities in drought-prone rural communities in north eastern Nigeria: a case study. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 19,25-48.

Fischer, G., M. Shah and H. van Velthuizen, 2002: Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Lax-enberg, 152 pp.

Fischer, G.,M. Shah,F.N.Tubiello and H. van Velthuizen, 2005: Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080. Philos. T. Roy. Soc.B, 360,2067-2083.

Freeman, P.K., 2003: Natural hazard risk and privatization. Building Safer Cities: The Future of Disaster Risk, A. Kreimer, M.Arnold and A. Carlin, Eds., World Bank Disaster Management Facility, Washington, District of Columbia, 33-44.

Freeman, P. and K. Warner, 2001: Vulnerability of infrastructure to climate variability: how does this affect infrastructure lending policies? Report commissioned by the Disaster Management Facility of the World Bank and the ProVention Consortium, Washington, District of Columbia, 42 pp.

Frenken, K., Ed., 2005: Irrigation in Africa in figures - AQUASTAT Survey -2005. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 89 pp.

Gabre-Madhin, E.Z. and S. Haggblade, 2004: Successes in African agriculture: results of an expert survey. World Dev., 32,745-766.

Gallup, J.L. and J.D. Sachs, 2001: The economic burden of malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 64,85-96.

Gana, F.S., 2003: The usage of indigenous plant materials among small-scale farmers in Niger state agricultural development project: Nigeria. Indilinga: African

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Giannini, A., R. Saravanan and P. Chang, 2003: Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science, 302,1027-1030.

Githeko, A.K. and W. Ndegwa, 2001: Predicting malaria epidemics in Kenyan highlands using climate data: a tool for decision makers. Global Change and Human Health, 2,54-63.

Gommes, R., J. du Guerny, M.H. Glantz, L.-N. Hsu and J. White, 2004: Climate and HIV/AIDS: a hotspots analysis for early warning rapid response systems. UNDP, NCAR and FAO, Bangkok, 36 pp.

Gommes, R., J. du Guerny, F.O. Nachtergalle and R. Brinkman, 2005: Potential impacts of sea-level rise on populations and agriculture. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 191-203.

Gonzalez, P., 2001: Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel. Climate Res, 17,217-228.

Government of Seychelles, 2000: Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Ministry of Environment and Transport, 145 pp. /natc/seync1 .pdf.

Granich, S., 2006: Deserts and desertification. Tiempo, 59, 8-11.

Gregory, P.J., J.S.I. Ingram and M. Brklacich, 2005: Climate change and food security. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 360,2139-2148.

Grothmann, T. and A. Patt, 2005: Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change. Global Environ. Chang., 15, 199-213.

Gueye, L., M. Bzioul and O. Johnson, 2005: Water and sustainable development in the countries of Northern Africa: coping with challenges and scarcity. Assessing sustainable development in Africa, Africa's Sustainable Development Bulletin, Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, 24-28.

Haarsma, R.J., F.M. Selten, S .L. Weber and M. Kliphuis, 2005: Sahel rainfall variability and response to greenhouse warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17702, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023232.

Haddad, B.M., 2005: Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit. Global Environ. Chang., 15,165-176.

Hall, D.O. and J.I. Scrase, 2005: Biomass energy in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 107112.

Hamilton, J.M., D.J. Maddison andR.SJ. Tol, 2005: Effects of climate change on international tourism. Climate Res., 29,245-254.

Hammerich, A., O.M.R. Campbell and D. Chandramohan, 2002: Unstable malaria transmission and maternal mortality: experiences from Rwanda. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 7,573-576.

Harrus, S. and G. Baneth, 2005: Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases. Int. J. Parasitol, 35,1309-1318.

Hartmann, J., K. Ebi, J. McConnell,N. Chan and J.P. Weyant,2002: Climate suitability: for stable malaria transmission in Zimbabwe under different climate change scenarios. Global Change and Human Health, 3,42-54.

Hay, S.I., J. Cox, D.J. Rogers, S.E. Randolph, D.I. Stern, G.D. Shanks, M.F. Myers and R.W. Snow, 2002a: Climate change and the resurgence of malaria in the East African Highlands. Nature, 415,905-909.

Hay, S.I., D.J. Rogers, S.E. Randolph, D.I. Stern, J. Cox, G.D. Shanks and R.W. Snow, 2002b: Hot topic or hot air? Climate change and malaria resurgence in East African highlands. Trends in Parasitology, 18,530-534.

Held, I.M.,T.L. Delworth, J.Lu,K.L.Findell andT.R. Knuston, 2005: Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 17891-17896.

Hemp, A., 2005: Climate change-driven forest fires marginalize the impact of ice cap wasting on Kilimanjaro. Glob. Change Biol., 11,1013-1023.

Herrmann, S.M., A. Anyamba and C.J. Tucker, 2005: Recent trends in vegetation dynamics in the African Sahel and their relationship to climate. Global Environ. Chang, 15,394-404.

Hewawasam, I., 2002: Managing the marine and coastal environment of sub-Sa-haran Africa: strategic directions for sustainable development. World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 57 pp.

Hewitson, B.C. and R.G. Crane, 2006: Consensus between GCM climate change projections with empirical downscaling: precipitation downscaling over South Africa. Int. J. Climatol, 26,1315-1337.

Hoerling, M., J. Hurrell, J. Eischeid and A. Phillips, 2006: Detection and attribution of twentieth-century northern and southern African rainfall change. J. Climate, 19,3989-4008.

Holding, P.A. and R.W. Snow, 2001: Impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on performance and learning: review of the evidence. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 64,68-75.

Hudson, D.A. and R.G. Jones, 2002: Regional climate model simulations of present day and future climates of Southern Africa. Technical Note 39, Hadley Centre, Bracknell, 42 pp.

Hugon, P. and PX. Nanterre, 2003: Food insecurity and famine in southern Africa, an economic debate: lack of availabilities, market failures, inequities of rights, effects of shocks or systemic risks? Preprints, SARPN Meeting: Food Security in Southern Africa, 18 March 2003, Pretoria.

Hulme, D. and A. Shepherd, 2003: Conceptualizing chronic poverty. World Dev., 31,403-423.

Hulme, M.,R.M. Doherty,T. Ngara, M.G. New and D. Lister, 2001: African climate change: 1900-2100. Climate Res., 17,145-168.

Hulme, M., R. Doherty,T. Ngara and M. New, 2005: Global warming and African climate change. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 29-40.

Huntingford, C.,F.H. Lambert, J.H.C. Gash, CM. Taylor and A.J. Challinor, 2005: Aspects of climate change prediction relevant to crop productivity. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 360,1999-2009.

Huq, S. and H. Reid, 2004: Mainstreaming adaptation in development. IDS Bull., 35,15-21.

ICID (International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, New Delhi), 2005: Water Policy Issues of Egypt, Country Policy Support Programme, 36 pp.

IEA (International Energy Association), 2002: World Energy Outlook 2002. International Energy Agency, Paris, 533 pp. free/2000/weo2002 .pdf.

IFRCRCS (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), 2002: World Disasters Report: Focusing on Reducing Risk. Geneva, 240 pp.

IFRCRCS (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), 2005: World Disasters Report: Focus on Information in Disasters. Geneva, 251pp.

Institute of Development Studies, 2005: New Directions for African Agriculture, I. Scoones,A. deGrassi,S. Devereux andL. Haddad,Eds., IDS Bull., 36,160 pp.

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