Abdalla, A.A., 2006: Environmental degradation and conflict in Darfur: experiences and development options. Environmental Degradation as a Cause for Conflict in Darfur: Conference Proceedings, Khartoum, Sudan, December 2004, University for Peace, Addis Ababa, 112 pp. 0a%20cause%20of%20conflict%20in%20Darfur%20(.pdf.

Abdulai, A. and A. Crolerees, 2001: Determinants of income diversification amongst rural households in Southern Mali. Food Policy, 26,437-452.

Abeku, T.A., S.J. De Vlas, G. Borsboom, A. Tadege, Y. Gebreyesus, H. Gebrey-ohannes, D. Alamirew, A. Seifu and Co-authors, 2004: Effects of meteorological factors on epidemic malaria in Ethiopia: a statistical modelling approach based on theoretical reasoning. Parasitology, 128,585-593.

Abou-Hadid, A.F., 2006: Assessment of impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to climate change in North Africa: food production and water resources. AIACC Final Report (AF 90), Washington, District of Columbia, 148 pp.

Adger, N. and K. Vincent, 2005: Uncertainty in adaptive capacity. C. R. Geosci, 337,399-410.

Adger, N., N. Brooks, M. Kelly, G. Bentham, M. Agnew and S. Eriksen, 2004: New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Technical Report 7, Tyn-dall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 128 pp.

AfDB (African Development Bank), Asian Development Bank, UK DFID, Netherlands DGIS, European Commission DG for Development, German BMZ, OECD, UNDP, UNEP and World Bank, 2002: Poverty and Climate Change: Reducing Vulnerability of the Poor Through Adaptation, UNEP, 56 pp. pdf.

Afrane, Y.A., B.W. Lawson,A.K. Githeko and G. Yan, 2005: Effects of microclimatic changes caused by land use and land cover on duration of gonotrophic cycles of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya highlands. J. Med. Entomol, 42,974-980.

African Union, 2005: Status of food security and prospects for agricultural development in Africa: 2005. AU Ministerial Conference of Ministers of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, 26 pp.

Agoumi, A., 2003: Vulnerability of North African countries to climatic changes: adaptation and implementation strategies for climatic change. Developing Perspectives on Climate Change: Issues and Analysis from Developing Countries and Countries with Economies in Transition. IISD/Climate Change Knowledge Network, 14 pp.

Agrawala, S., Ed., 2005: Bridge over Troubled Waters: Linking Climate Change and Development. OECD, Paris, 154 pp.

AGRHYMET, 2004: Rapport synthèse de l'enquête générale sur les itinéraires d'adaptation des populations locales à la variabilité et aux changements climatiques conduite sur les projets pilotes par AGRHYMET et l'UQAM, par Hubert N'Djafa Ouaga, 13 pp.

Ajibade, L.T., 2003: A methodology for the collection and evaluation of farmers' indigenous environmental knowledge in developing countries. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, 2,99-113.

Ajibade, L.T. and O. Shokemi, 2003: Indigenous approaches to weather forecasting in Asa L.G.A., Kwara State, Nigeria. Indilinga: African Journal of Indige nous Knowledge Systems, 2,37-44.

AMCEN/UNEP, 2002: Africa Environment Outlook: Past, Present and Future Perspectives. Earthprint, Stevenage, 410 pp.

Anderssen, L., J. Wilk, M.C. Todd, D.A. Hughes, A. Earle, D. Kniveton, R. Lay-berry, H.H.G. Savenije, 2006: Impact of climate change and development scenarios on flow patterns in the Okavango River, J. Hydrol., 331,43-57.

Archer, E.R.M., 2003: Identifying underserved end-user groups in the provision of climate information. B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84,1525-1532.

Armah, K.A., G. Wiafe and D.G. Kpelle, 2005: Sea-level rise and coastal biodiversity in West Africa: a case study from Ghana. Climate Change and Africa, P.S. Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 204-217.

Arnell, N.W., 2004: Climate change and global water resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environ. Chang., 14,31-52.

Arnell, N.W., 2006a: Global impacts of abrupt climate change: an initial assessment . Working Paper 99, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 37 pp.

Arnell, N.W., 2006b: Climate change and water resources: a global perspective. Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change, H.J. Schellnhuber, W. Cramer, N. Nakicenovic, T. Wigley and G. Yohe, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 167-175.

Arnell, N.W., M.G.R. Cannell, M. Hulme, R.S. Kovats, J.F.B. Mitchell, R.J. Nicholls, M.L. Parry, M.T.J. Livermore and A. White, 2002: The consequences of CO2 stabilisation for the impacts of climate change. Climatic Change, 53, 413-446.

Arrow, K., P. Dasgupta, L. Goulder, G. Daily, P. Ehrlich, G. Heal, S. Levin, K.-G. Maler and Co-authors, 2004: Are we consuming too much? J. Econ. Perspect., 18,147-172.

Ashton, P.J., 2002: Avoiding conflicts over Africa's water resources. Ambio, 31, 236-242.

Attaher, S., M.A. Medany, A.A. Abdel Aziz and A. El-Gindy, 2006: Irrigation-water demands under current and future climate conditions in Egypt. Misr. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 23,1077-1089.

Balint-Kurti, D., 2005: Tin trade fuels Congo War. News24, 07/03/2005. http://www.news24 .com/News24/Africa/Features/0 ,,2-11 -37_1672558,00 .html.

Balk, D.,A. Storeygard,M. Levy, J. Gaskell,M. SharmaandR. Flor, 2005: Child hunger in the developing world: an analysis of environmental and social correlates. Food Policy, 30,584-611.

Batterbury, S. and A. Warren, 2001: The African Sahel 25 years after the great drought: assessing progress and moving towards new agendas and approaches. Global Environ. Chang., 11,1-8.

Baylis, M. and A.K. Githeko, 2006: The effects of climate change on infectious diseases of animals. UK Foresight Project, Infectious Diseases: Preparing for the Future. Office of Science and Innovation, London, 35 pp.

Beg, N., J. Corfee Morlot, O. Davidson, Y. Afrane-Okesse, L. Tyani, F. Denton, Y. Sokona, J.P. Thomas and Co-authors, 2002: Linkages between climate change and sustainable development. Clim. Policy, 2,129-144.

Benhin, J.K.A., 2006: Climate change and South African agriculture: impacts and adaptation options. CEEPA Discussion Paper No. 21, Special Series on Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 78 pp.

Benson, C. and E.J. Clay, 2004: Understanding the Economic and Financial Impacts of Natural Disasters. Disaster Risk Management Series No. 4. World Bank Publications, Washington, District of Columbia, 130 pp.

Biggs, R.,E. Bohensky, P.V. Desanker, C. Fabricius,T. Lynam,A.A. Misselhorn,

C. Musvoto, M. Mutale and Co-authors, 2004: Nature Supporting People: The Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Integrated Report. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, 68 pp.

Block, S. and P. Webb, 2001: The dynamics of livelihood diversification in postfamine Ethiopia. Food Policy, 26,333-350.

Bomhard, B., D.M. Richardson, J.S. Donaldson, G.O. Hughes, GF. Midgley, D.C. Raimondo, A.G. Rebelo, M. Rouget and W. Thuiller, 2005: Potential impacts of future land use and climate change on the Red List status of the Proteaceae in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Glob. Change Biol, 11,1452-1468.

Bounoua, L., G.J. Collatz, S.O. Los, P.J. Sellers, D.A. Dazlich, C.J. Tucker and

D.A. Randall, 2000: Sensitivity of climate to changes in NDVI. J. Climate, 13, 2277-2292.

Bounoua, L., R. DeFries, G.J. Collatz, P. Sellers and H. Khan, 2002: Effects of land cover conversion on surface climate. Climatic Change, 52,29-64.

Brooks, N., 2004: Drought in the African Sahel: long-term perspectives and future prospects. Working Paper 61, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 31 pp.

Brooks, N., W.N. Adger and P.M. Kelly, 2005: The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environ. Chang., 15,151-163.

Brovkin, V., 2002: Climate-vegetation interaction. J. Phys. IV, 12,57-72.

Bryceson, D., 2000: Rural Africa at the crossroads: livelihood practices and policies. Natural Resource Perspectives, 52,

Bryceson, DF., 2002: The scramble in Africa: reorienting rural livelihoods. World Dev., 30,725-739.

Bryceson, D.F., 2004: Agrarian vista or vortex: African rural livelihood policies. Review of African Political Economy, 31, 617-629.

Bryceson, D.F. and J. Fonseca, 2006: Risking death for survival: peasant responses to hunger and HIV/AIDS in Malawi. World Dev., 34,1654-1666.

Burke, E.J., S.J. Brown andN. Christidis,2006: Modelling the recent evolution of global drought and projections for the twenty-first century with the Hadley Centre climate model. J. Hydrometeorol., 7,1113-1125.

Center for International Earth Science Information Network, 2006: Where the Poor Are: An Atlas of Poverty. Columbia University, New York, 57 pp. http://www.

Chappell, A. and C.T. Agnew, 2004: Modelling climate change in West African Sahel rainfall (1931-90) as an artifact of changing station locations. Int. J. Cli-matol, 24,547-554.

Chen, H., A.K. Githeko, G. Zhou, J.I. Githure and G. Yan, 2006: New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya Highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission. Malaria J., 5,17.

Chen, S. and M. Ravallion, 2004: How have the world's poorest fared since the early 1980s? The World Bank Research Observer, 19,141-169.

Chigwada, J., 2005: Climate proofing infrastructure and diversifying livelihoods in Zimbabwe. IDS Bull, 36, S103-S116.

Christensen, J.H., B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R.K. Koli, W.-T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V.M. Rueda, L. Mearns, C.G. Menendez, J. Raisanen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr and P. Whetton, 2007: Regional climate projections. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 847-940.

Christie, F. and J. Hanlon, 2001: Mozambique and the Great Flood of2000. Indiana University Press, Indiana, 176 pp.

Clark, B.M., 2006: Climate change: a looming challenge for fisheries management in southern Africa. Mar. Policy, 30, 84-95.

Clark, B.M., S. Young and A. Richardson, 2003: Likely effects of global climate change on the purse seine fishery for Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis off the west coast of Southern Africa (SE Atlantic).

Claussen, M., V. Brovkin, A. Ganopolski, C. Kubatzki and V. Petoukhov, 2003: Climate change in northern Africa: the past is not the future. Climatic Change, 57,99-118.

Connor, S.J., P. Ceccato, T. Dinku, J. Omumbo, E.K. Grover-Kopec and M.C. Thomson, 2006: Using climate information for improved health in Africa: relevance, constraints and opportunities. Geospatial Health, 1,17-31.

Conway, D., 2005: From headwater tributaries to international river: observing and adapting to climate variability and change in the Nile Basin. Global Environ. Chang, 15,99-114.

Conway, D., C. Mould and W. Bewket, 2004: Over one century of rainfall and temperature observations in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Int. J. Climatol, 24,77-91.

Conway, D., E. Allison, R. Felstead and M. Goulden, 2005: Rainfall variability in East Africa: implications for natural resources management and livelihoods. Philos. T. Roy. Soc.A, 363,49-54.

Coughenour, J. Hudson, P. Weisberg, C. Vogel and J.E. Ellis, 2004: Ecosystem modeling adds value to South African climate forecasts. Climatic Change, 64, 317-340.

Cullen,NJ.,T.Molg,G. Kaser,K. Hussein,K. Steffen and D.R. Hardy,2006: Kilimanjaro glaciers: recent areal extent from satellite data and new interpretation of observed 20th century retreat rates. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16502, doi: 10.1029/2006GL027084.

Cury, P. and L. Shannon, 2004: Regime shifts in upwelling ecosystems: observed changes and possible mechanisms in the northern and southern Benguela. Prog. Oceanogr, 60,223-243.

Dai, A., P.J. Lamb, K.E. Trenberth, M. Hulme, P.D. Jones and P. Xie, 2004: The recent Sahel drought is real. Int. J. Climatol., 24,1323-1331.

Davidson, O., K. Halsnaes, S. Huq,M. Kok, B. Metz, Y. Sokonaand J. Verhagen, 2003: The development and climate nexus: the case of sub-Saharan Africa. Clim. Policy, 3,97-113.

de Wit,M. and J. Stankiewicz, 2006: Changes in water supply across Africa with predicted climate change. Science, 311,1917-1921.

Dea, D. and I. Scoones, 2003: Networks of knowledge: how farmers and scientists understand soils and their fertility: a case study from Ethiopia. Oxford Development Studies, 31, 461-478.

DeFries, R.S., L. Bounoua and G.J. Collatz, 2002: Human modification of the landscape and surface climate in the next fifty years. Glob. Change Biol., 8,438458.

Desta, S. and L. Coppock, 2004: Pastoralism under pressure: tracking system change in southern Ethiopia. Hum. Ecol, 32,465-486.

Devereux, S., 2003: Policy options for increasing the contribution of social protection to food security. Forum for Food Security in Southern Africa, Overseas Development Institute, London, 35 pp.

Devereux, S. and S. Maxwell, Eds., 2001: Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa. ITDG Publishing, Pietermaritzburg, 361 pp.

DFID (Department for International Development), 2004: The impact of climate change on the vulnerability of the poor. Policy Division, Global Environmental Assets, Key sheet 3,6 pp.

Dilley, M., R.S. Chen, U. Deichmann, A.L. Lerner-Lam, M. Arnold, J. Agwe, P. Buys, O. Kjekstad and Co-authors, 2005: Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis. Disaster Risk Management Series No. 5. The World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 148 pp. /themes/default/pdfs/Hotspots.pdf.

Dixon, R.K., J. Smith and S. Guill, 2003: Life on the edge: vulnerability and adaptation of African ecosystems to global climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 8,93-113.

Dougherty, W. and B. Osman, 2005: Mainstreaming adaptation into national development plans. AIACC Second Regional Workshop for Africa and Indian Ocean Islands, Dakar, Senegal.

du Plessis C, D.K. Irurah and R.J. Scholes, 2003: The built environment and climate change in South Africa. Build. Res. Inf., 31,240-256.

Dwyer,E.S., S. Pinnock, J.M. Gregoire and J.M.C. Pereira, 2000: Global spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation fire as determined from satellite observations. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 21,1289-1302.

Easton, P. and M. Roland, 2000: Seeds of life: women and agricultural biodiversity in Africa. IK Notes 23. World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 4 pp.

ECA (Economic Commission for Africa), 2002: Harnessing technologies for sustainable development. Economic Commission for Africa Policy Research Report, Addis Ababa, 178 pp.

ECA (Economic Commission for Africa), 2005: Assessing sustainable development in Africa. Africa's Sustainable Development Bulletin. Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, 59 pp.

ECF (European Climate Forum) and Potsdam Institute, 2004: What is dangerous climate change? Initial Results of a Symposium on Key Vulnerable Regions, Climate Change and Article 2 of the UNFCCC, Buenos Aires. Beijing, 39 pp.

2006: Assessing the impacts of climate change on agriculture in Egypt: a ricardian approach. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Discussion Paper No. 16, Special Series on Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 1-33.

Eklundh, L. and L. Olsson, 2003: Vegetation trends for the African Sahel 19821999. Geophys. Res. Lett, 30,1430, doi:10.1029/2002GL016772.

El-Gindy, A., A.A. Abdel Azziz and E.A. El-Sahaar, 2001: Design of irrigation and drainage networks. Faculty of Agriculture lectures, Ain Shams University, 28 pp. (inArabic).

Ellis, F., 2000: Rural Livelihoods and Diversity in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 296 pp.

Ellis, F., 2003: Human vulnerability and food insecurity: policy implications. Forum for Food Security in Southern Africa, Overseas Development Group, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 47 pp.

Ellis, F. and G. Bahiigwa, 2003: Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Uganda. World Dev., 31,997-1013.

Ellis, F. andN. Mdoe, 2003: Livelihoods and rural poverty reduction in Tanzania. World Dev., 31,1367-1384.

EPIQ (Environmental Policy and Institutional Strengthening Indefinite Quantity, Water Policy Reform Activity, Agricultural Policy Reform Programme and Market-Based Incentives Team), 2002: Economic Instruments for Improved Water Resources Management in Egypt, Prepared for the United States Agency for International Development/Egypt, No. PCE-I-00-96-00002-00,173 pp.

Epstein, P.R. and E. Mills, Eds., 2005: Climate Change Futures: Health, Ecological and Economic Dimensions. Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 142 pp.

Erasmus, B.F.N.,A.S. van Jaarsveld,SL. Chown,M. Kshatriya and K.J. Wessels, 2002: Vulnerability of South Africa animal taxa to climate change. Glob. Change Biol, 8,679-693.

Eriksen, S., 2004: Building adaptive capacity in a 'glocal' world: examples from Norway and Africa. ESS Bulletin, 2,18-26.

Eriksen, S., 2005: The role of indigenous plants in household adaptation to climate change: the Kenyan experience. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 248-259.

Eriksen, S .H. and J. Silva, 2003: The impact of economic liberalisation on climate vulnerability among farmers in Mozambique. IHDP Open Meeting, 16-18 October 2003, Montreal, 15 pp.

Eriksen, S.H., K. Brown and P.M. Kelly, 2005: The dynamics of vulnerability: locating coping strategies in Kenya and Tanzania. Geogr. J., 171,287-305.

ESMAP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program), 2005: The vulnerability of African countries to oil price shocks: major factors and policy options - the case of oil importing countries. World Bank Report 308/5, Washington, District of Columbia, 76 pp.

FAO, 2004: Locust crisis to hit northwest Africa again: situation deteriorating in the Sahel. FAO News Release, 17 September 2004.

FAO, 2005: The State of Food and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 211 pp.

Fauchereau, N., S. Trzaska, Y. Richard, P. Roucou and P. Camberlin, 2003: Sea-surface temperature co-variability in the southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans and its connections with the atmospheric circulation in the southern hemisphere. Int. J. Climatol., 23,663-677.

Fekete, B.M., C.J. Vorosmarty, J.O. Roads and C.J. Willmott ,2004: Uncertainties in precipitation and their impact on runoff estimates. J. Climate, 17,294-304.

Ferguson, J., 2006: Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Duke University Press, Durham and London, 257 pp.

Few R., M. Ahern, F. Matthies and S. Kovats, 2004: Floods, health and climate change: a strategic review. Working Paper 63, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 138 pp.

Fiki, O.C. and B. Lee, 2004: Conflict generation, conflict management and self-organizing capabilities in drought-prone rural communities in north eastern Nigeria: a case study. Journal of Social Development in Africa, 19,25-48.

Fischer, G., M. Shah and H. van Velthuizen, 2002: Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Lax-enberg, 152 pp.

Fischer, G.,M. Shah,F.N.Tubiello and H. van Velthuizen, 2005: Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990-2080. Philos. T. Roy. Soc.B, 360,2067-2083.

Freeman, P.K., 2003: Natural hazard risk and privatization. Building Safer Cities: The Future of Disaster Risk, A. Kreimer, M.Arnold and A. Carlin, Eds., World Bank Disaster Management Facility, Washington, District of Columbia, 33-44.

Freeman, P. and K. Warner, 2001: Vulnerability of infrastructure to climate variability: how does this affect infrastructure lending policies? Report commissioned by the Disaster Management Facility of the World Bank and the ProVention Consortium, Washington, District of Columbia, 42 pp.

Frenken, K., Ed., 2005: Irrigation in Africa in figures - AQUASTAT Survey -2005. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, 89 pp.

Gabre-Madhin, E.Z. and S. Haggblade, 2004: Successes in African agriculture: results of an expert survey. World Dev., 32,745-766.

Gallup, J.L. and J.D. Sachs, 2001: The economic burden of malaria. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 64,85-96.

Gana, F.S., 2003: The usage of indigenous plant materials among small-scale farmers in Niger state agricultural development project: Nigeria. Indilinga: African

Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems, 2,53-60.

Giannini, A., R. Saravanan and P. Chang, 2003: Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science, 302,1027-1030.

Githeko, A.K. and W. Ndegwa, 2001: Predicting malaria epidemics in Kenyan highlands using climate data: a tool for decision makers. Global Change and Human Health, 2,54-63.

Gommes, R., J. du Guerny, M.H. Glantz, L.-N. Hsu and J. White, 2004: Climate and HIV/AIDS: a hotspots analysis for early warning rapid response systems. UNDP, NCAR and FAO, Bangkok, 36 pp.

Gommes, R., J. du Guerny, F.O. Nachtergalle and R. Brinkman, 2005: Potential impacts of sea-level rise on populations and agriculture. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 191-203.

Gonzalez, P., 2001: Desertification and a shift of forest species in the West African Sahel. Climate Res, 17,217-228.

Government of Seychelles, 2000: Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Ministry of Environment and Transport, 145 pp. /natc/seync1 .pdf.

Granich, S., 2006: Deserts and desertification. Tiempo, 59, 8-11.

Gregory, P.J., J.S.I. Ingram and M. Brklacich, 2005: Climate change and food security. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 360,2139-2148.

Grothmann, T. and A. Patt, 2005: Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change. Global Environ. Chang., 15, 199-213.

Gueye, L., M. Bzioul and O. Johnson, 2005: Water and sustainable development in the countries of Northern Africa: coping with challenges and scarcity. Assessing sustainable development in Africa, Africa's Sustainable Development Bulletin, Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, 24-28.

Haarsma, R.J., F.M. Selten, S .L. Weber and M. Kliphuis, 2005: Sahel rainfall variability and response to greenhouse warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17702, doi: 10.1029/2005GL023232.

Haddad, B.M., 2005: Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit. Global Environ. Chang., 15,165-176.

Hall, D.O. and J.I. Scrase, 2005: Biomass energy in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 107112.

Hamilton, J.M., D.J. Maddison andR.SJ. Tol, 2005: Effects of climate change on international tourism. Climate Res., 29,245-254.

Hammerich, A., O.M.R. Campbell and D. Chandramohan, 2002: Unstable malaria transmission and maternal mortality: experiences from Rwanda. Trop. Med. Int. Health, 7,573-576.

Harrus, S. and G. Baneth, 2005: Drivers for the emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne protozoal and bacterial diseases. Int. J. Parasitol, 35,1309-1318.

Hartmann, J., K. Ebi, J. McConnell,N. Chan and J.P. Weyant,2002: Climate suitability: for stable malaria transmission in Zimbabwe under different climate change scenarios. Global Change and Human Health, 3,42-54.

Hay, S.I., J. Cox, D.J. Rogers, S.E. Randolph, D.I. Stern, G.D. Shanks, M.F. Myers and R.W. Snow, 2002a: Climate change and the resurgence of malaria in the East African Highlands. Nature, 415,905-909.

Hay, S.I., D.J. Rogers, S.E. Randolph, D.I. Stern, J. Cox, G.D. Shanks and R.W. Snow, 2002b: Hot topic or hot air? Climate change and malaria resurgence in East African highlands. Trends in Parasitology, 18,530-534.

Held, I.M.,T.L. Delworth, J.Lu,K.L.Findell andT.R. Knuston, 2005: Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 17891-17896.

Hemp, A., 2005: Climate change-driven forest fires marginalize the impact of ice cap wasting on Kilimanjaro. Glob. Change Biol., 11,1013-1023.

Herrmann, S.M., A. Anyamba and C.J. Tucker, 2005: Recent trends in vegetation dynamics in the African Sahel and their relationship to climate. Global Environ. Chang, 15,394-404.

Hewawasam, I., 2002: Managing the marine and coastal environment of sub-Sa-haran Africa: strategic directions for sustainable development. World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 57 pp.

Hewitson, B.C. and R.G. Crane, 2006: Consensus between GCM climate change projections with empirical downscaling: precipitation downscaling over South Africa. Int. J. Climatol, 26,1315-1337.

Hoerling, M., J. Hurrell, J. Eischeid and A. Phillips, 2006: Detection and attribution of twentieth-century northern and southern African rainfall change. J. Climate, 19,3989-4008.

Holding, P.A. and R.W. Snow, 2001: Impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on performance and learning: review of the evidence. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 64,68-75.

Hudson, D.A. and R.G. Jones, 2002: Regional climate model simulations of present day and future climates of Southern Africa. Technical Note 39, Hadley Centre, Bracknell, 42 pp.

Hugon, P. and PX. Nanterre, 2003: Food insecurity and famine in southern Africa, an economic debate: lack of availabilities, market failures, inequities of rights, effects of shocks or systemic risks? Preprints, SARPN Meeting: Food Security in Southern Africa, 18 March 2003, Pretoria.

Hulme, D. and A. Shepherd, 2003: Conceptualizing chronic poverty. World Dev., 31,403-423.

Hulme, M.,R.M. Doherty,T. Ngara, M.G. New and D. Lister, 2001: African climate change: 1900-2100. Climate Res., 17,145-168.

Hulme, M., R. Doherty,T. Ngara and M. New, 2005: Global warming and African climate change. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 29-40.

Huntingford, C.,F.H. Lambert, J.H.C. Gash, CM. Taylor and A.J. Challinor, 2005: Aspects of climate change prediction relevant to crop productivity. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 360,1999-2009.

Huq, S. and H. Reid, 2004: Mainstreaming adaptation in development. IDS Bull., 35,15-21.

ICID (International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, New Delhi), 2005: Water Policy Issues of Egypt, Country Policy Support Programme, 36 pp.

IEA (International Energy Association), 2002: World Energy Outlook 2002. International Energy Agency, Paris, 533 pp. free/2000/weo2002 .pdf.

IFRCRCS (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), 2002: World Disasters Report: Focusing on Reducing Risk. Geneva, 240 pp.

IFRCRCS (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), 2005: World Disasters Report: Focus on Information in Disasters. Geneva, 251pp.

Institute of Development Studies, 2005: New Directions for African Agriculture, I. Scoones,A. deGrassi,S. Devereux andL. Haddad,Eds., IDS Bull., 36,160 pp.

International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, 2004: Drought Cycle Management: A Toolkit for the Drylands of the Greater Horn. Cordiad and Acacia Consultants, Nairobi, 253 pp.

IPCC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, J.J. McCarthy, O.F. Canziani, N.A. Leary, D.J. Dokken and K.S. White, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1032 pp.

IPCC, 2007a: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 996 pp.

IPCC, 2007b: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, B. Metz, O. Davidson, P. Bosch, R. Dave and L. Meyer, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

IRI, GCOS, DfID and ECA, 2006: A gap analysis for the implementation of the Global Climate Observing System programme in Africa, IRI (International Research Institute for Climate and Society) Technical Report, IRI-TR/06/1, 52 pp.

Jenkins, G.S., G. Adamou and S. Fongang, 2002: The challenges of modelling climate variability and change in West Africa. Climatic Change, 52,263-286.

Jenkins, G.S.,A.T. Gaye and B. Sylla, 2005: Late 20th century attribution of drying trends in the Sahel from the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3). Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L22705, doi:10.1029/2005GL024225.

Jones, P.G. and P.K. Thornton, 2003: The potential impacts of climate change on maize production in Africa and Latin America in 2055. Global Environ. Chang, 13,51-59.

Kabat, P., R E. Schulze,M.E. Hellmuth and J.A. Veraart, Eds., 2002: Coping with impacts of climate variability and climate change in water management: a scoping paper. DWC-Report No. DWCSSO-01 (2002). Dialogue on Water and Climate, Wageningen, 114 pp.

Kamga, A.F., G.S. Jenkins, A.T. Gaye, A. Garba,A. Sarr andA. Adedoyin, 2005: Evaluating the National Center for Atmospheric Research climate system model over West Africa: present-day and the 21st century A1 scenario. J. Geophys.

Res.-Atmos., 110, D03106, doi:10.1029/2004JD004689.

Kaser, G., D.R. Hardy, T. Molg, R.S. Bradley andT.M. Hyera, 2004: Modern glacier retreat on Kilimanjaro as evidence of climate change: observations and facts. Int. J. Climatol, 24,329-339.

Kelly, V., A.A. Adesina and A. Gordon, 2003: Expanding access to agricultural inputs in Africa: a review of recent market development experience. Food Policy, 28,379-404.

Kempeneers, P., E. Swinnen and F. Fierens, 2002: GLOBSCAR Final Report, TAP/N7904/FF/FR-001 Version 1.2, VITO, Belgium, 25 pp. http://geofront. vgt .vito .be/geosuccess/documents/Final%20Report.pdf ;jsessionid=668127C519 13A12DB357A8569F4FE74F.

Kherallah, M., C. Delgado, E. Gabre-Madhin, N. Minot and M. Johnson, 2004: The road half travelled: agricultural market reform in Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy Report, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, District of Columbia, 4 pp.

King'uyu, S.M., L.A. Ogallo and E.K. Anyamba, 2000: Recent trends of minimum and maximum surface temperatures over Eastern Africa. J. Climate, 13, 2876-2886.

Klein, RJT.,RJ.Nicholls and F. Thomalla, 2002: The resilience of coastal megac-ities to weather-related hazards. Building Safer Cities: The Future of Disaster Risk, A. Kreimer, M.Arnold andA. Carlin, Eds., The World Bank Disaster Management Facility, Washington, District of Columbia, 101-120.

Kotb, M., M. Abdulaziz, Z. Al-Agwan, K. Al-Shaikh, H. Al-Yami, A. Banajah, L. DeVantier, M. Eisinger and Co-authors, 2004: Status of coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden in 2004. Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004, C. Wilkinson , Ed., Volume 1, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville ,137-154.

Kruger, A.C. and S. Shongwe, 2004: Temperature trends in South Africa: 19602003. Int. J. Climatol, 24,1929-1945.

Kurukulasuriya, P. and S. Rosenthal, 2003: Climate change and agriculture: a review of impacts and adaptations. Climate Change Series Paper 91, World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 106 pp.

Kurukulasuriya, P. and R. Mendelsohn, 2006a: ARicardian analysis of the impact of climate change on African cropland. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Discussion Paper No. 8. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 58 pp.

Kurukulasuriya, P. and R. Mendelsohn, 2006b: Crop selection: adapting to climate change in Africa. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Discussion Paper No. 26. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 28 pp.

Lal, M., 2001: Tropical cyclones in a warmer world. Current Sci, 80,1103-1104.

Leautier, F., 2004: Indigenous capacity enhancement: developing community knowledge. Indigenous Knowledge: Local Pathways to Global Development. The World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 4-8.

Lebel, T., F. Delclaux, L. Le Barbe and J. Polcher, 2000: From GCM scales to hy-drological scales: rainfall variability in West Africa. Stoch. Env. Res. Risk A., 14, 275-295.

Leemans, R. and B. Eickhout, 2004: Another reason for concern: regional and global impacts on ecosystems for different levels of climate change. Global Environ. Chang, 14,219-228.

Legesse, D., C. Vallet-Coulomb and F. Gasse, 2003: Hydrological response of a catchment to climate and land use changes in Tropical Africa: case study South Central Ethiopia. J. Hydrol, 275,67-85.

Lemke, P., J. Ren, R.B. Alley, I. Allison, J. Carrasco, G. Flato, Y. Fujii, G. Kaser, P. Mote, R.H. Thomas and T. Zhang, 2007: Observations: Changes in snow, ice and frozen ground. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 337-384.

Levy, P., 2006: Regional climate change impacts on global vegetation. Understanding the Regional Impacts ofClimate Change: Research Report prepared for the Stern Review on the Economics ofClimate Change, R. Warren, N. Arnell, R. Nicholls, P. Levy and J. Price, Eds., Working Paper 90, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 99-108.

L'Hôte, Y., G. Mahé, B. Some and J.P.Triboulet, 2002: Analysis of aSahelian annual rainfall index from 1896 to 2000: the drought continues. Hydrolog. Sci. J., 47,563-572.

Lind, J. and K. Sturman, Eds., 2002: Scarcity and Surfeit: The Ecology of Africa's Conflicts. Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, 388 pp.

Little, P.D., H. Mahmoud and D.L. Coppock, 2001: When deserts flood: riskman-

agement and climate processes among East African pastoralists. Climate Res., 19, 149-159.

Lough, J.M., 2000: 1997-98: Unprecedented thermal stress to coral reefs? Geo-phys. Res. Lett, 27,3901-3904.

Malaney, P., A. Spielman and J. Sachs, 2004: The malaria gap. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 71,141-146.

Malhi, Y. and J. Wright, 2004: Spatial patterns and recent trends in the climate of tropical rainforest regions. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 359,311-329.

Mano, R., B. Isaacson and P. Dardel, 2003: Identifying policy determinants of food security response and recovery in the SADC region: the case of the 2002 food emergency. FANRPAN Policy Paper, 31 pp. library/documents/2003/fews-sad-13may.pdf.

Marsland, N., 2004: Development of food security and vulnerability information systems in Southern Africa: the experience of Save the Children UK. Save the Children, 64 pp.

Matondo, J.I., G. Peter and K.M. Msibi, 2005: Managing water under climate change for peace and prosperity in Swaziland. Phys. Chem. Earth, 30,943-949.

Maynard,K., J.-F. Royer andF. Chauvin, 2002: Impact of greenhouse warming on the West African summer monsoon. Clim. Dynam, 19,499-514.

McClean, C.J., J.C. Lovett, W. Kuper,L. Hannah, J.H. Sommer, W. Barthlott, M. Termansen, G.F. Smith and Co-authors, 2005: African plant diversity and climate change. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard, 92,139-152.

McDonald,R.E., D.G. Bleaken, D.R. Cresswell, V.D. Pope and C.A. Senior, 2005: Tropical storms: representation and diagnosis in climate models and the impacts of climate change. Clim. Dynam., 25,19-36.

McLeman, R. and B. Smit, 2004: Climate change, migration and security. Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Commentary No. 86. http://www.csis-scrs.gc .ca/en/publications/commentary/com86 .asp.

McLeman, R. and B. Smit, 2005: Assessing the security implications of climate change-related migration. Preprint, Human Security and Climate Change: An International Workshop, Oslo, 20 pp.

McMichael, A.J., R.E. Woodruff and S. Hales, 2006: Climate change and human health: present and future risks. Lancet, 367, 859-869.

Mendelsohn, R., W. Morrison, M.E. Schlesinger and N.G. Andronova, 2000a: Country-specific market impacts from climate change. Climatic Change, 45, 553-569.

Mendelsohn, R., A. Dinar and A. Dalfelt, 2000b: Climate change impacts on African agriculture. Preliminary analysis prepared for the World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 25 pp.

Mercier, F., A. Cazenave and C. Maheu, 2002: Interannual lake level fluctuations (1993-1999) in Africa from Topex/Poseidon: connections with ocean-atmosphere interactions over the Indian Ocean. Global Planet. Change, 32,141-163.

Midgley, G.F., L. Hannah, D. Millar, M.C. Rutherford and L.W. Powrie, 2002: Assessing the vulnerability of species richness to anthropogenic climate change in a biodiversity hotspot. Global Ecol. Biogeogr, 11,445-451.

Mirza, M.M.Q., 2003: Climate change and extreme weather events: can developing countries adapt? Clim. Policy, 3,233-248.

Misselhorn, A.A., 2005: What drives food insecurity in Southern Africa? A metaanalysis of household economy studies. Global Environ. Chang., 15,33-43.

Mitchell, J.F.B., T.C. Johns, W.J. Ingram and J.A. Lowe, 2000: The effect of stabilising the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on global and regional climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27,2977-2980.

Molesworth A.M., L.E. Cuevas, S.J. Connor, A.P. Morse and M.C. Thomson, 2003: Environmental risk and meningitis epidemics in Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis, 9,1287-1293.

Molg, T. and D.R. Hardy, 2004: Ablation and associated energy balance of a horizontal glacier surface on Kilimanjaro. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D16104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004338.

Monyo, E.S., 2002: Pearl millet cultivars released in the SADC region. ICRISAT, Bulawayo, 40 pp.

Mortimore, M.J. and W.M. Adams, 2001: Farmer adaptation, change and 'crisis' in the Sahel. Global Environ. Chang., 11,49-57.

Muhando, C.A., 2001: The 1998 coral bleaching and mortality event in Tanzania: implications for coral reef research and management. Marine Science Development in Tanzania and Eastern Africa: Proc. 20th Anniversary Conference on Advances in Marine Science in Tanzania, M.D. Richmond and J. Francis, Eds., Institute of Marine Science/Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association, Zanzibar, 329-342.

Munga, S., N. Minakawa, G. Zhou, E. Mushinzimana, O.O.J. Barrack, A.K.

Githeko and G. Yan, 2006: Association between land cover and habitat productivity of malaria vectors in western Kenyan highlands. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 74,69-75.

Muriuki, G.W., T.J. Njoka, R.S. Reid and D.M. Nyariki, 2005: Tsetse control and land-use change in Lambwe valley, south-western Kenya. Agr. Ecosyst. Environ, 106,99-107.

Mutangadura, G., S. Ivens and S.M. Donkor, 2005: Assessing the progress made by southern Africa in implementing the MDG target on drinking water and sanitation. Assessing sustainable development in Africa, Africa's Sustainable Development Bulletin, Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, 19-23.

Myers, N., 2002: Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 357,609-613.

Nakicenovic,N., J. Alcamo, G. Davis, B. de Vries, J. Fenhann, S. Gaffin, K. Gregory, A. Grübler, T.Y. Jung,T. Kram, E. Lebre laRovere,L. Michaelis, S. Mori, T. Morita, W. Pepper, H. Pitcher,L. Price, K. Riahi, A. Roehrl,H.H. Rogner, A. Sankovski, M. Schlesinger, P. Shukla, S. Smith, R. Swart, S. van Rooijen, N. Victor and Z. Dadi, Eds., 2000: Emissions Scenarios: A Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 509 pp.

Nelleman, C. and E. Corcoran, Eds., 2006: Our precious coasts: marine pollution, climate change and the resilience of coastal ecosystems. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID- Arendal, Norway, 40 pp.

New, M., 2002: Climate change and water resources in the southwestern Cape, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci, 98,369-373.

New, M., B. Hewitson, D.B. Stephenson, A. Tsiga, A. Kruger, A. Manhique, B. Gomez, CA.S. Coelho and Co-authors, 2006: Evidence of trends in daily climate extremes over southern and west Africa. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos, 111, D14102, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006289.

Niang-Diop, I., 2005: Impacts of climate change on the coastal zones of Africa. Coastal Zones in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Scientific Review of the Priority Issues Influencing Sustainability and Vulnerability in Coastal Communities, IOC, Ed., IOC Workshop Report No. 186. ICAM Dossier No. 4,27-33.

Niang-Diop, I., M. Dansokho, A.T. Diaw, S. Faye, A. Guisse, I. Ly, F. Matty, A. Sene and Co-authors, 2005: Senegal. Climate Change in Developing Countries: An Overview of Study Results from the Netherlands Climate Change Studies Assistance Programme, M.A. van Drunen, R. Lasage and C. Dorland, Eds., IVM, Amsterdam, 101-109.

Niasse, M., 2005: Climate-induced water conflict risks in West Africa: recognizing and coping with increasing climate impacts on shared watercourses. Preprint, Human Security and Climate Change: An International Workshop, Oslo, 15 pp.

Niasse, M., A. Afouda and A. Amani, Eds., 2004: Reducing West Africa's Vulnerability to Climate Impacts on Water Resources, Wetlands and Desertification: Elements for a Regional Strategy for Preparedness and Adaptation. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Resources (IUCN), Cambridge, 84 pp.

Nicholls, R.J., 2004: Coastal flooding and wetland loss in the 21st century: changes under the SRES climate and socio-economic scenarios. Global Environ. Chang., 14, 69-86.

Nicholls,RJ. and R.S J.Tol, 2006: Impacts and responses to sea-level rise: a global analysis of the SRES scenarios over the twenty-first century. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A, 364,1073-1095.

Nicholson, S.E., 2001: Climatic and environmental change in Africa during the last two centuries. Climate Res., 17,123-144.

Nicholson, S.E. and J.C. Selato, 2000: The influence of La Niña on African rainfall. Int. J. Climatol, 20,1761-1776.

Nicholson, S.E. and J.P. Grist, 2003: The seasonal evolution of the atmospheric circulation over West Africa and Equatorial Africa. J. Climate, 16,1013-1030.

Nicholson, S.E., B. Some and B. Kone, 2000: An analysis of recent rainfall conditions in West Africa, including the rainy season of the 1997 El Niño and the 1998 La Niña years. J. Climate, 13,2628-2640.

Njaya,F. and C. Howard, 2006: Climate and African fisheries. Tiempo, 59,13-15.

Nkomo, J.C., A.O. Nyong and K. Kulindwa, 2006: The impacts of climate change in Africa. Report prepared for the Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change, 51 pp. Chapter_5_The_ Impacts_of_Climate_Change_in_Africa-5.pdf.

Obasi,G.O.P., 2005: The impacts of ENSO in Africa. Climate Change and Africa, P.S Low, Ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 218-230.

O'Brien, K., 2006: Are we missing the point? Global environmental change as an issue of human security. Global Environ. Chang., 16,1-3.

O'Brien, K. and C. Vogel, Eds., 2003: Coping with Climate Variability: The Use of Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Southern Africa. Ashgate Publishing, Alder-shot, 176 pp.

Obura, D.O., 2001: Differential bleaching and mortality of eastern African corals. Marine Science Development in Tanzania and Eastern Africa: Proc. 20th Anniversary Conference on Advances in Marine Science in Tanzania, M.D. Richmond and J. Francis, Eds., Institute of Marine Science/Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association, Zanzibar, 301-317.

Odada,E.O., D O. Olago, K. Kulindwa, M. Ntiba and S. Wandiga, 2004: Mitigation of environmental problems in Lake Victoria, East Africa: causal chain and policy option analysis. Ambio, 33,13-23.

OECD, 2004/2005: African Economic Outlook: What's New for Africa? Joint Project of the African Development Bank and OECD Development Centre, Paris, 540 pp.

Olsson, L., L. Eklundh and J. Ardo, 2005: A recent greening of the Sahel: trend, patterns and potential causes. J. Arid Environ., 63,556-566.

O'Reilly, C.M., S.R. Alin, P.D. Plisnier, A.S. Cohen and B.A. McKee, 2003: Climate change decreases aquatic ecosystem productivity of Lake Tanganyika, Africa. Nature, 424,766-768.

Orindi, V.A. and A. Ochieng, 2005: Seed Fairs as a drought recovery strategy in Kenya. IDS Bull., 36, 87-102.

Osman-Elasha, B., N. Goutbi, E. Spanger-Siegfried, W. Dougherty, A. Hanafi, S. Zakieldeen, A. Sanjak, H. Abdel Atti and H.M. Elhassan, 2006: Adaptation strategies to increase human resilience against climate variability and change: lessons from the arid regions of Sudan. Working Paper 42, AIACC, 44 pp.

Owens, T., J. Hoddinot and B. Kinsey, 2003: Ex-ante actions and ex-post public responses to drought shocks: evidence and simulations from Zimbabwe. World Dev., 31,1239-1255.

Owuor, B., S. Eriksen and W. Mauta, 2005: Adapting to climate change in a dryland mountain environment in Kenya. Mt. Res. Dev., 25,310-315.

Pandey, D.N., A.K. Gupta and D.M. Anderson, 2003: Rainwater harvesting as an adaptation to climate change. Curr. Sci. India, 85,46-59.

Parry,M.L., C.A. Rosenzweig,A. Iglesias,M. Livermore and G. Fisher,2004: Effects of climate change on global food production under SRES emissions and socioeconomic scenarios. Global Environ. Chang., 14,53-67.

Pascual,M.,J.A. Ahumada,L.F. Chaves, X. Rodó andM. Bouma, 2006: Malaria resurgence in the East African highlands: temperature trends revisited. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103,5829-5834.

Patt, A., 2001: Understanding uncertainty: forecasting seasonal climate for farmers in Zimbabwe. Risk, Decision and Policy, 6,105-119.

Patt, A. and C. Gwata, 2002: Effective seasonal climate forecast applications: examining constraints for subsistence farmers in Zimbabwe. Global Environ. Chang,, 12,185-195.

Patt, A., P. Suarez and C. Gwata, 2005: Effects of seasonal climate forecasts and participatory workshops among subsistence farmers in Zimbabwe. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102,12623-12628.

Patz, J.A. and S.H. Olson, 2006: Climate change and health: global to local influences on disease risk. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit., 100,535-549.

Patz, J.A., M. Hulme, C. Rosenzweig, T.D. Mitchell, R.A. Goldberg, A.K. Githeko, S. Lele, A.J. McMichael and D. Le Sueur, 2002: Climate change (communications arising): Regional warming and malaria resurgence. Nature, 420,627-628.

Payet, R. and D. Obura, 2004: The negative impacts of human activities in the Eastern African region: an international waters perspective. Ambio, 33,24-33.

Phillips, J.G.,E. Makaudze andL. Unganai, 2001: Current and potential use of climate forecasts for resource-poor farmers in Zimbabwe. Impacts of El Niño and Climate Variability on Agriculture, C. Rosenzweig, K.J. Boote, S. Hollinger, A. Iglesias and J.G. Phillips, Eds., American Society of Agronomy Special Publication 63, Madison, Wisconsin, 97-100.

Piot, P. and P. Pinstrup-Anderson, 2002: AIDS: the new challenge to food security. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2001-2002 Annual Report, 11-17.

Prospero, J.M. and P.J. Lamb, 2003: African droughts and dust transport to the Caribbean: climate change implications. Science, 302,1024-1027.

Quinn, C.H., M. Huby, H. Kiwasila and J.C. Lovett, 2003: Local perceptions of risk to livelihood in semi-arid Tanzania. J. Environ. Manage., 68,111-119.

Ramphele, M., 2004: Women's indigenous knowledge: building bridges between the traditional and the modern. Indigenous Knowledge: Local Pathways to Development, The World Bank, Washington, District of Columbia, 13-17.

Reason, C.J.C., 2002: Sensitivity of the southern African circulation to dipole sea-surface temperature patterns in the south Indian Ocean. Int. J. Climatol., 22,377393.

Reason, C.J.C. and A. Keibel, 2004: Tropical cyclone Eline and its unusual penetration and impacts over the southern African mainland. Weather Forecast., 19, 789-805.

Reason, C.J.C., S. Hachigonta and R.F. Phaladi, 2005: Interannual variability in rainy season characteristics over the Limpopo region of southern Africa. Int. J. Climatol., 25,1835-1853.

Reich, P.F., S.T. Numbem, R.A. Almaraz and H. Eswaran, 2001: Land resource stresses and desertification in Africa. Agro-Science, 2,1-10.

Reid, P. and C. Vogel, 2006: Living and responding to multiple stressors in South Africa: glimpses from KwaZulu Natal. Global Environ. Chang., 16,195-206.

Republic of Ghana, 2000: Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Accra, 171 pp.

Republic of Kenya, 2002: First National Communication of Kenya to the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Nairobi, 155 pp.

République de Côte d'Ivoire, 2000: Communication Initiale de la Côte d'Ivoire. Ministère de l'Environnement, de l'Eau et de la Forêt, Abidjan, 97 pp.

République de Djibouti, 2001 : Communication Nationale Initiale de la Republique des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques. Ministere de l'Habitat, de l'Urbanisme, de l'Environment et de l'Amenagement de Territoire, 91 pp.

République de Guinée, 2002: Communication Initiale de la Guinée à la Convention Cadre des Nations Unies sur les Changements Climatiques. Ministère des Mines, de la Géologie et de l'Environnement, Conakry, 78 pp.

République Démocratique du Congo, 2000: Communication Nationale Initiale de la République Démocratique du Congo (année 1994). Ministère des Affaires Foncières, Environnement et Développement Touristique, Kinshasa, 207 pp.

République du Congo, 2001: Communication Nationale Initiale. Ministère de l'Industrie Minière et de l'Environnement, Brazzaville, 56 pp.

Richard, Y., N. Fauchereau, I. Poccard, M. Rouault and S. Trzaska, 2001: 20th century droughts in Southern Africa: spatial and temporal variability, telecon-nections with oceanic and atmospheric conditions. Int. J. Climatol., 21,873-885.

Riebeek, H., 2006: Lake Victoria's falling waters. Earth Observatory Features, NASA. http://earthobservatory.nasa .gov/Study/Victoria/printall .php.

Robinson, J.B. and D. Herbert, 2001: Integrating climate change and sustainable development. Int. J. Global Environ., 1,130-149.

Rocha, L.A., D.R. Robertson, C.R. Rocha, J.L. Van Tassell, M.T. Craig and B.W. Bowens, 2005: Recent invasion of the tropical Atlantic by an Indo-Pacific coral reef fish. Mol. Ecol, 14,3921-3928.

Rockström, J., 2003: Resilience building and water demand management for drought mitigation. Phys. Chem. Earth, 28, 869-877.

Ron, J., 2005: Paradigm in distress? Primary commodities and civil war. J. Conflict Resolut., 49,443-450.

Roncoli, C., K. Ingram and P. Kirshen, 2001: The costs and risks of coping with drought: livelihood impacts and farmers' responses in Burkina Faso. Climate Res, 19,119-132.

Rosegrant,M.W. and S.A. Cline,2003: Global food security: challenges and policies. Science, 302,1917-1919.

Rowell, D.P.,2003: The impact of Mediterranean SSTs on the Sahelian rainfall season. J. Climate, 16, 849-862.

Ruosteenoja, K.,T.R. Carter, K. Jylhä and H.Tuomenvirt, 2003: Future climate in world regions: an intercomparison of model-based projections for the new IPCC emissions scenarios. Finnish Environment Institute No. 644, Helsinki, 83 pp.

Sachs, J.D., 2005: The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for our Time. Penguin, New York, 416 pp.

Sachs, J. and P. Malaney, 2002: The economic and social burden of malaria. Nature, 415,680-685.

Sachs, J.D., J.W. McArthur, G. Schmidt-Traub, C. Kruk, M. Bahadur, M. Faye and G. McCord, 2004: Ending Africa's poverty trap. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1,117-240.

SAFARI, 2004: South African Regional Science Initiative (CSIR, YB, NASA, ZMD and WITS, 2004): SAFARI 2000; reprinted from J. Geophys. Res, AGU Special Collection, 108, 2003. .do?collectionCode=SAF 1 &journalCode=JD.

Schreck, C.J. and F.H.M. Semazzi, 2004: Variability of the recent climate of eastern Africa. Int. J. Climatol, 24,681-701.

Schreider, G. and B. Knerr, 2000: Labor migration as a social security mechanism for smallholder households in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Cameroon. Oxford Development Studies, 28,223-236.

Schulze, R., J. Meigh and M. Horan, 2001: Present and potential future vulnerability of eastern and southern Africa's hydrology and water resources. S. Afr. J. Sci, 97,150-160.

Schwind, K., 2005: Going local on a global scale: rethinking food trade in the era of climate change, dumping and rural poverty. BackGrounder, 11,1-4.

Scoones, I., 2005: Governing technology development: challenges for agricultural research in Africa. IDS Bull, 36,109-114.

Scoones, I., S. Devereux and L. Haddad, 2005: Introduction: New directions for African agriculture. IDS Bull., 36,1-12.

Seck, M., M.N.A. Mamouda and S. Wade, 2005: Case Study 4: Adaptation and mitigation through "produced environments": the case for agriculture intensification in Senegal. IDS Bull., 36,71-86.

Semazzi, F.H.M. and Y. Song, 2001: AGCM study of climate change induced by deforestation in Africa. Climate Res., 17,169-182.

Seo, S.N. and R. Mendelsohn, 2006a: Climate change impacts on animal husbandry in Africa: aRicardian analysis. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Discussion Paper No. 9, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 42 pp.

Seo, S .N. and R. Mendelsohn, 2006b: Climate change adaptation in Africa: a mi-croeconomic analysis of livestock choice. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Discussion Paper No.19, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 37 pp.

Simmons, R.E., P. Barnard, W.R.J. Dean, G.F. Midgley, W. Thuiller and G. Hughes, 2004: Climate change and birds: perspectives and prospects from southern Africa. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology, 75,295-308.

Slingo, J.M., A.J. Challinor, B.J. Hoskins and T.R. Wheeler, 2005: Introduction: food crops in a changing climate. Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 360,1983-1989.

Sokona, Y. andF. Denton, 2001: Climate change impacts: can Africa cope with the challenges? Clim. Policy, 1,117-123.

St-Pierre, N.R., B. Cobanov and G. Schnitkey, 2003: Economic losses from heat stress by US livestock industries. J. Dairy Sci., 86,52-77.

State of Eritrea, 2001: Eritrea's Initial National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Ministry of Land, Water and Environment, Asmara, 99 pp. /docs/natc/erinc1 .pdf.

Stern, N., 2007: The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 692 pp.

Stige, L.C., J. Stave, K.S. Chan, L. Ciannelli, N. Pretorelli, M. Glantz, H.R. Herren and N.C. Stenseth, 2006: The effect of climate variation on agro-pastoral production in Africa. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103,3049-3053.

Strzepek, K. and A. McCluskey, 2006: District level hydro-climatic time series and scenario analysis to assess the impacts of climate change on regional water resources and agriculture in Africa. Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa (CEEPA) Discussion Paper No.13, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 59 pp.

Sultan, B., K. Labadi, J.F. Guegan and S. Janicot, 2005: Climate drives the meningitis epidemics onset in West Africa. PLoS Med., 2, 43-49. http:/ / journal.pmed. 0020006-S .pdf.

Swaminathan, M.S., 2000: Climate change and food security. Climate Change and Development, L. Gomez-Echeverri, Ed., UNDP Regional Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean and Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, 103-114.

Swart, R., J. Mitchell, T. Morita and S. Raper, 2002: Stabilisation scenarios for climate impacts assessment. Global Environ. Chang., 12,155-165.

Tadross,M.A., B.C. Hewitson andM.T. Usman, 2005a: The interannual variability of the onset of the maize growing season over South Africa and Zimbabwe. J. Climate, 18,3356-3372.

Tadross, M., C. Jack and B. Hewitson, 2005b: On RCM-based projections of change in southern African summer climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L23713, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024460.

Tanser,F.C., B. Sharp and D. le Sueur, 2003: Potential effect of climate change on malaria transmission in Africa. Lancet, 362,1792-1798.

Tarhule, A. and P.J. Lamb, 2003: Climate research and seasonal forecasting for West Africans: perceptions, dissemination, and use? B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84, 1741-1759.

terKuile,F.O.,M.E. Parise,F.H. Verhoeff, V.Udhayakumar,R.D. Newman, A.M. van Eijk, S.J. Rogerson and R.W. Steketee, 2004: The burden of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and malaria in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 71,41-54.

Thomas, C.D., A. Cameron, R.E. Green, M. Bakkenes, L.J. Beaumont, Y.C. Collingham, B.FN. Erasmus, MF. de Siqueiraand Co-authors, 2004: Extinction from climate change. Nature, 427,145-148.

Thomas, D.S.G. and C.Twyman,2005: Equity and justice in climate change adaptation amongst natural-resource-dependent societies. Global Environ. Chang., 15,115-124.

Thomas, D.S.G.,M. Knight and G.F.S. Wiggs, 2005: Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty-first century global warming. Nature, 435,1218-1221.

Thompson, L.G., E. Mosley-Thompson, M.E. Davis, K.A. Henderson, H.H. Brecher, V.S. Zagorodnov, T.A. Mashiotta, P.N. Lin and Co-authors, 2002: Kilimanjaro ice core records: evidence of Holocene change in tropical Africa. Science, 298,589-593.

Thomson, M.C., F.J. Doblas-Reyes, S.J. Mason, R. Hagedorn, S.J. Connor, T. Phindela, A.P. Morse and T.N. Plamer, 2006: Malaria early warnings based on seasonal climate forecasts from multi-model ensembles. Nature, 439,576-579.

Thornton, P.K., R.H. Fawcett, K.A. Galvin, R.B. Boone, J.W. Hudson and C.H. Vogel, 2004: Evaluating management options that use climate forecasts: modelling livestock production systems in the semi-arid zone of South Africa. Climate Res., 26,33-42.

Thornton, P.K., P.G. Jones,T.M. Owiyo, R.L. Kruska, M. Herero, P. Kristjanson, A. Notenbaert, N. Bekele and Co-authors, 2006: Mapping Climate Vulnerability and Poverty in Africa. Report to the Department for International Development, ILRI, Nairobi, 200 pp.

Thuiller, W.,O. Broennimann,G. Hughes, J.R.M. Alkemade, G.F. Midgley andF. Corsi, 2006: Vulnerability of African mammals to anthropogenic climate change under conservative land transformation assumptions. Glob. Change Biol., 12, 424-440.

Tiffen, M., 2003: Transition in sub-Saharan Africa: agriculture, urbanization and income growth. World Dev., 31,1343-1366.

Tol, R.S.J., B. O'Neill and D.P. van Vuuren, 2005: A critical assessment of the IPCC SRES scenarios.

Toulmin, C., R. Leonard, K. Brock, N. Coulibaly, G. Carswell and D. Dea, 2000: Diversification of livelihoods: evidence from Mali and Ethiopia. Research Report 47, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, 60 pp.

Trenberth, K.E., P.D. Jones, P. Ambenje,R. Bojariu, D.Easterling,A. Klein Tank, D. Parker, F. Rahimzadeh, J.A. Renwick, M. Rusticucci, B. Soden and P. Zhai, 2007: Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 235-336.

Turner, M., 2003: Environmental science and social causation in the analysis of Sa-helian pastoralism. Political Ecology: An Integrative Approach to Geography and Environment-Development Studies, K.S. Zimmerer and T.J. Bassett, Eds., Guilford Press, New York, 159-178.

Turpie, J., H. Winkler, R. Spalding-Fecher and G. Midgley, 2002: Economic impacts of climate change in South Africa: a preliminary analysis of unmitigated damage costs. Energy and Development Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 64 pp.

UNAIDS, 2004: 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. 4th Global Report, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Rome, 236 pp.

UNDP, 2004: Reducing Disaster Risk: a Challenge for Development. UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, New York, 161 pp. http://www.undp. org/bcpr/disred/documents/publications/rdr/english/rdr_english.pdf.

UNDP, 2005: Human Development Report 2005. United Nations Development Programme, New York, 388 pp. HDR05_complete .pdf.

UNEP, 2004: GEO Year Book 2003. The United Nations Environment Programme Global Environmental Outlook Report, 76 pp.

UNEP, 2005: GEO Year BOOK 2004/5. The United Nations Environment Programme Global Environmental Outlook Report, 96 pp. geo/pdfs/GEO%20YEARBOOK

Emergency Preparedness

Emergency Preparedness

Remember to prepare for everyone in the home. When you are putting together a plan to prepare in the case of an emergency, it is very important to remember to plan for not only yourself and your children, but also for your family pets and any guests who could potentially be with you at the time of the emergency.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment