Large-area, long-term field studies are required to evaluate observed impacts of climate change on managed and unmanaged systems and human activities. This will enable improved understanding of where and when impacts become detectable, where the hotspots lie, and why some areas are more vulnerable than others. High-quality observations are essential for full understanding of causes, and for unequivocal attribution of present-day trends to climate change [1.4.3,4.8].
Timely monitoring of the pace of approaching significant thresholds (such as abrupt climate change thresholds) is required [6.8,10.8.4].
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