Many impacts can be avoided reduced or delayed by mitigation

A small number of impact assessments have now been completed for scenarios in which future atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases are stabilised. Although these studies do not take full account of uncertainties in projected climate under stabilisation - for example, the

Drying/ Drought

Increased rainfall/


Warming/ Heatwaves

Food, fibre and forestry

Crops: development of new drought-resistant varieties; intercropping; crop residue retention; weed management; irrigation and hydroponic farming; water harvesting

Livestock: supplementary feeding; change in stocking rate; altered grazing and rotation of pasture Social: Improved extension services; debt relief; diversification of income

Crops: Polders and improved drainage; development and promotion of alternative crops; adjustment of plantation and harvesting schedule; floating agricultural systems Social: Improved extension services

Water resources

Human health

Industry, settlement and society

Leak reduction Water demand management through metering and pricing Soil moisture conservation e.g., through mulching Desalination of sea water Conservation of groundwater through artificial recharge Education for sustainable water use

Enhanced implementation of protection measures including flood forecasting and warning, regulation through planning legislation and zoning; promotion of insurance; and relocation of vulnerable assets

Grain storage and provision of emergency feeding stations

Provision of safe drinking water and sanitation Strengthening of public institutions and health systems

Access to international food markets

Crops: Development of new heat- Water demand management resistant varieties; altered timing of through metering and pricing cropping activities; pest control and Education for sustainable surveillance of crops water use

Livestock: Housing and shade provision; change to heat-tolerant breeds

Forestry: Fire management through altered stand layout, landscape planning, dead timber salvaging, clearing undergrowth. Insect control through prescribed burning, non-chemical pest control Social: Diversification of income

Wind speed/ Storminess

Crops: Development of wind-resistant crops (e.g., vanilla)

Coastal defence design and implementation to protect water supply against contamination

Improve adaptation capacities, especially for livelihoods Incorporate climate change in development programmes Improved water supply systems and co-ordination between jurisdictions

Structural and nonstructural measures. Early-warning systems; disaster preparedness planning; effective postevent emergency relief

International surveillance systems for disease emergence

Strengthening of public institutions and health systems

National and regional heat warning systems Measures to reduce urban heat island effects through creating green spaces Adjusting clothing and activity levels; increasing fluid intake

Early-warning systems; disaster preparedness planning; effective postevent emergency relief

Improved flood protection infrastructure "Flood-proof" buildings Change land use in high-risk areas

Managed realignment and "Making Space for Water" Flood hazard mapping; flood warnings

Empower community institutions

Assistance programmes for especially vulnerable groups Improve adaptive capacities Technological change

Emergency preparedness, including early-warning systems More resilient infrastructure Financial risk management options for both developed and developing regions

Table TS.6. Examples of current and potential options for adapting to climate change for vulnerable sectors. All entries have been referred to in chapters in the Fourth Assessment. Note that, with respect to ecosystems, generic rather than specific adaptation responses are required. Generic planning strategies would enhance the capacity to adapt naturally. Examples of such strategies are: enhanced wildlife corridors, including wide altitudinal gradients in protected areas. [5.5, 3.5, 6.5, 7.5, T6.5]

sensitivity of climate models to forcing - they nevertheless provide indications of damages avoided or vulnerabilities and risks reduced for different amounts of emissions reduction [2.4, T20.6].

In addition, more quantitative information is now available concerning when, over a range of temperature increases, given amounts of impact may occur. This allows inference of the amounts of global temperature increase that are associated with given impacts. Table TS.3 illustrates the change in global average temperature projected for three periods (2020s, 2050s, 2080s) for several alternative stabilisation pathways and for emissions trends assumed under different SRES scenarios. Reference to Tables TS.3 and TS.4 provides a picture of the impacts which might be avoided for given ranges of temperature change.

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