L

La Niña. See El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Lakes, 233-234, 664 chemistry, 91 epishelf, 90

eutrophication, 551,553

future impacts, 184

observed changes, 28, 81,90, 91,97, 98,177

phenology, 97, 98

thermal structure, 91

See also Freshwater resources and management; Glacial lakes; Thermal expansion; Thermal stratification Land cover change, 49, 84, 816 carbon balance and, 793 direct and indirect effects, 84 in Latin America, 53, 590 projections, 157 Land degradation, 229,518-519,520

See also Erosion Land-use change,49, 84

direct and indirect effects, 84 effects on ecosystems, 213, 216-217, 237-239, 241 effects on forests, 229-230 future scenarios, 155-156, 157 in Latin America, 53, 583, 590, 594-595, 606 Landslides*

in Asia, 472,473,477 in Australia/New Zealand region, 50

in Latin America, 599 Large-scale singularities*, 35,64,75,135,160,797, 802, 828

See also Abrupt climate change Last glacial maximum*, 214,220 Latin America, 53-55,61,581-615

adaptation, 55, 583, 591-593, 600-604, 605, 722 adaptive capacity, 584, 605

agriculture, 54, 281, 584, 586, 591, 592, 597, 598, 601-602 Amazon forest, 218, 241,243, 281, 594-595,596 aquaculture, 593

assumptions about future trends, 593-596 biodiversity, 583, 586, 590, 592, 596, 603, 791 case studies, 604-605 Chacaltaya glacier, Bolivia, 87 climate, 53, 583, 585-587, 588-589, 593-594 climate, possibility of rapid changes, 596 climate variability, 54, 583, 586, 591 coasts, 54, 584, 586, 593, 599, 600, 602-603 current sensitivity/vulnerability, 584-593 deforestation, 53, 583, 590, 594-595, 604, 606 dengue fever, 404, 586, 591, 593, 599 development, 595-596 distinctions of, 584-585 droughts, 400, 586

ecosystems, natural, 583, 584, 586, 592, 596, 601

El Nino/ENSO in, 585, 586, 591

extreme weather events, 53, 583, 585,594

fisheries, 281,584, 587, 590,603

floods, 398,586, 588

food security, 602

forests/forestry, 106, 584, 592,594-595, 602 future impacts and vulnerabilities, 53-55, 61,242-244,

596-600, 788, 791,825, 829 glaciers, 87, 584, 589, 598 HIV/AIDS in, 587 hotspots, 604, 606

human health, 395,403,405,408, 583, 584,586-588,

599-601,603-604 human population, 587, 595 hydropower generation, 586, 589, 591,597-598 introduction, 583-584

land-use changes, 53, 583,590, 594-595, 606

livestock, 54, 583, 586, 602

malaria, 408, 584,586, 591, 593,599

migration, 587, 595

non-climatic stresses, 587-588

observed changes, 30,87, 106,115-116, 588-591

past and current trends, 588-591

pollution, 587-588

pre-Columbian communities, adaptation practices, 605

precipitation, 53, 151, 583, 588, 589, 593-594

schistosomiasis in, 405

socio-economic factors, 590-591

summary of knowledge in TAR, 584

sustainable development, 55, 299, 584, 606-607

temperature, 53-54, 150, 583, 589, 593-594, 606 tourism, 587, 599

uncertainties and research priorities, 607 urban indicators, 363 urbanisation, 587, 590 vulnerability/risk, 53-54, 596-600, 788, 791 water resources, 586, 592-593, 597-599, 602, 605 water stress, 54, 583, 597-598 weather and climate forecasting, 591-592, 604 weather and climate stresses, 585-587 See also specific countries Leaching*, 52,228,294,542,543,545 Leaf area index (LAI)*, 220,227,240 Lebanon, water resources, 483 Legumes*, 54,106,287,583,590,607 Leishmaniasis, 403,557,587,593,599 Lemmings, 658,666 Lentic (still-water) systems, 664 Leptospirosis, 404,587,588,701 Lianas, 104

Likelihood*, 27,786, 799

See also Confidence; Uncertainty Linkages/linkage systems, 43, 359,362, 365, 366,374, 382 Littoral zone*, 599 Livestock adaptation, 295, 721

in Africa, 278, 287,447,448

in Asia, 287,482,483

in Australia/New Zealand region, 283, 520

diseases, 447, 555

drought mortality, 278

in Europe, 555, 565

forage production for, 277,277,480,486, 555 heat stress mortality, 555,586 insect pests and, 283, 520 in Latin America, 54, 583,586, 602 observed changes, 105, 106 production, 285-288 projected changes, 38 summary of impacts, 301, 302 vulnerability/risk, 790 Low-lying areas. See Coastal systems and low-lying areas Lyme disease, 108,410,557,619,625,632

Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), 691 Mainstreaming, 471,513,637-638,639,732, 768

adaptation into planning/development decisions, 55, 65,

818,832-836 barriers to, 835-836 definition, 749 Maize, 106,297,448,452,480,597 projected crop yields, 54 sensitivity to climate change, 39 temperature and, 286 Malaria*, 394,400,404,557,689,701 adaptation/mitigation decisions and, 755 in Africa, 48, 108-109,400,404,406,408,409,437-439,

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