Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation have been identified through examples in the published literature. This Supplementary Material lists examples of linkages with full citations and an analysis of the type of linkage. The many examples have been clustered according to the type of linkage. In the main chapter, Figure 18.2 shows a sample of the linkages documented in the literature, ordered according to the entry point and scale of decision making. Table 18.1 lists all of the types of linkages documented. The categories are illustrative; some cases occur in more than one category or could shift over time or in different situations. For example, watershed planning is often related to managing climatic risks in using water but if hydroelectricity is an option, then the entry point might be mitigation, and both adaptation and mitigation might be evaluated at the same time or even with explicit trade-offs.

A wide range of linkages have been documented in the literature. Many of the examples are motivated by either mitigation or adaptation, with largely unintended consequences for the other. Most of the examples do not concern explicit trade-offs between the costs of mitigation and investment in adaptation. It appears that public decision-making is taking a precautionary view of risk and accepting responsibilities for reducing emissions based on some consideration of equity.

Table 1: This table contains the explanation of the codes and the key to the values in the matrix.

Table 2: This table is a database of examples of linkages between adaptation and mitigation. It contains the reference and short abstract for each example. It also contains a set of fields that we used to code the example. However, we have not done this consistently and the codes are for internal purposes only - they are not used in describing the linkages in the IPCC WGII Chapter 18.

Criteria for We accepted any example where the authors made a selection: connection between adaptation and mitigation, even if the linkage is indirect. We have a preference for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, but accepted any publication that meets the IPCC criteria. We sought only to cite a few cases of each example. For instance, there are hundreds of articles on rural energy use, the switch to low-carbon sources and the benefits for health, education and livelihoods - we only cite a few examples that illustrate the general case. However, some of the citations are to websites and the results of searches of the grey literature. We include this material in the matrix, but do not rely on it for the conclusions of the chapter.

References: A large Endnote library of citations also exists.

Table 1: Description of fields in matrix


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