Water Freedom System

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Severe drought due to record high temperature

Karoly et al., 2003; Nicholls, 2004

Sahelian drought

1981-1993; 1994-2005

(a) 1981-1993 marked by below average Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and persistence of drought

(b) 1994-2005 marked by a trend towards 'wetter' condition, but still far below the pre-1980s wetter condition

Hisdal et al., 2001; Hannaford and Marsh, 2005; Hodgkins et al., 2005; van der Schrier et al., 2005

Table SM-1.3. Examples from the literature of observed changes in physical and chemical water properties.


Time period

Observed change


64 lakes/rivers in Europe, North America and Asia

Last 40 years

Surface water temperature warming by 0.2-1.5°C for 17 lakes. Stratified period has advanced by up to 20 days and lengthened by 2-3 weeks with increased thermal stability

Adrian and Deneke, 1996; King et al., 1998; Livingstone and Dokulil, 2001; Carvalho and Kirika, 2003; Livingstone, 2003; Straile et al., 2003; Arhonditsis et al., 2004; Dabrowski et al., 2004; Winder and Schindler, 2004

8 lakes/rivers in North America, Europe and East Africa

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