2001; Link and Tol, 2004). For example, quantifying market-based damages associated with MOC changes is a difficult task, and current analyses should be interpreted as order-of-magnitude estimates, with none carrying high confidence. These preliminary analyses suggest that significant reductions in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are economically efficient even if the damages associated with a MOC slowing or collapse are less than 1% of gross world product. However, model results are very dependent on assumptions about climate sensitivity, the damage functions for smooth and abrupt climate change and time discounting, and are thus designed primarily to demonstrate frameworks for analysis and order-of-magnitude outcomes rather than high-confidence quantitative projections.

Several researchers have implemented probabilistic treatments of uncertainty in cost-benefit analyses; recent examples include Mastrandrea and Schneider (2004) and Hope (2006). These probabilistic analyses consistently suggest more aggressive mitigation policies compared with deterministic analyses, since probabilistic analyses allow the co-occurrence of high climate sensitivities (see Key caveat in Section on low confidence for specific quantitatitive results) with high climate-damage functions.

19.4.25 Cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost-effectiveness analysis involves determining cost-minimising policy strategies that are compatible with pre-defined probabilistic or deterministic constraints on future climate change or its impacts. Comparison of cost-minimal strategies for alternative climate constraints has been applied to explore the trade-offs between climate change impacts and the associated cost of emissions mitigation (e.g., Keller et al., 2004; Mclnerney and Keller, 2006). The reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions determined by cost-effectiveness analyses incorporating such constraints are typically much larger than those suggested by most earlier cost-benefit analyses, which often do not consider the key vulnerabilities underlying such constraints in their damage functions. In addition, cost-benefit analysis assumes perfect substitutability between all costs and benefits of a policy strategy, whereas the hard constraints in a cost-effectiveness analysis do not allow for such substitution.

Some cost-effectiveness (as well as cost-benefit) analyses have explored sequential decision strategies in combination with the avoidance of key vulnerabilities or thresholds for global temperature change. These strategies allow for the resolution of key uncertainties in the future through additional observations and/or improved modelling. The quantitative results of these analyses cannot carry high confidence, as most studies represent uncertain parameters by two to three discrete values only and/or employ rather arbitrary assumptions about learning (e.g., Hammitt et al., 1992; Keller et al., 2004; Yohe et al., 2004). In a systematic analysis, Webster et al. (2003) finds that the ability to learn about damages from climate change and costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the future can lead to either less restrictive or more restrictive policies today. All studies report the opinions of their authors to be that the scientific uncertainty by itself does not provide justification for doing nothing today to mitigate potential climate damages.

19.4.3 Synthesis

The studies reviewed in this section diverge widely in their methodological approach, in the sophistication with which uncertainties are considered in geophysical, biological and social systems, and in how closely they approach an explicit examination of key vulnerabilities or DAI. The models involved range from stand-alone carbon cycle and climate models to comprehensive integrated assessment frameworks describing emissions, technologies, mitigation, climate change and impacts. Some frameworks incorporate approximations of vulnerability but none contains a well-established representation of adaptation processes in the global context.

It is not possible to draw a simple summary from the diverse set of studies reviewed in this section. The following conclusions from literature since the TAR, however, are more robust.

• A growing literature considers response strategies that aim at preventing damage to particular key elements and processes in geophysical, biological and socio-economic systems that are sensitive to climate change and have limited adaptation potential; policy-makers may want to consider insights from the literature reviewed here in helping them to design policies to prevent DAI.

• In a majority of the literature, key impacts are associated with long-term increases in equilibrium global mean surface temperature above the pre-industrial equilibrium or an increase above 1990-2000 levels. Transient temperature changes are more instructive for the analyses of key vulnerabilities, but the literature is sparse on transient assessments relative to equilibrium analyses. Many studies provide global mean temperature thresholds that would lead sooner or later to a specific key impact, i.e., to disruption/shutdown of a vulnerable process. Such thresholds are not known precisely, and are characterised in the literature by a range of values (or occasionally by probability functions). Assessments of whether emissions pathways/GHG concentration profiles exceed given temperature thresholds are characterised by significant uncertainty. Therefore, deterministic studies alone cannot provide sufficient information for a full analysis of response strategies, and probabilistic approaches should be considered. Risk analyses given in some recent studies suggest that there is no longer high confidence that certain large-scale events (e.g., deglaciation of major ice sheets) can be avoided, given historical climate change and the inertia of the climate system (Wigley, 2004, 2006; Rahmstorf and Zickfeld, 2005). Similar conclusions could also be applied to risks for social systems, though the literature often suggests that any thresholds for these are at least as uncertain.

• Meehl et al., 2007 Table 10.8 provide likely ranges of equilibrium global mean surface temperature increase for different CO2-equivalent stabilisation levels, based on their expert assessment that equilibrium climate sensitivity is likely to lie in the range 2-4.5°C (Meehl et al., 2007 Executive Summary). They present the following likely ranges (which have been converted from temperature increase above pre-industrial to equilibrium temperature increase above 1990-2000 levels - see Box 19.2); 350 ppm CO2-equivalent: 0-0.8°C above 1990-2000 levels; 450 ppm CO2-equivalent: 0.8-2.5°C above 1990-2000 levels; 550 ppm CO2-equivalent: 1.3-3.8°C above 1990-2000 levels; 650 ppm CO2-equivalent: 1.8-4.9°C above 19902000 levels; 750 ppm CO2-equivalent: 2.2-5.8°C above 1990-2000 levels. Some studies suggest that climate sensitivities larger than this likely range (which would suggest greater warming) cannot be ruled out (Meehl et al., 2007 Section 10.7.2), and the WGI range implies a 517% chance that climate sensitivity falls above 4.5°C (see Key caveat in Section for further information).

• While future global mean temperature trajectories associated with different emissions pathways are not projected to diverge considerably in the next two to four decades, the literature shows that mitigation activities involving near-term emissions reductions will have a significant effect on concentration and temperature profiles over the next century. Later initiation of stabilisation efforts has been shown to require higher rates of reduction if they are to reduce the likelihood of crossings levels of DAI (Semenov, 2004a,b; Izrael and Semenov, 2005,2006). Substantial delay (several decades or more) in mitigation activities makes achievement of the lower range of stabilisation targets (e.g., 500 ppm CO2-equivalent and lower) infeasible, except via overshoot scenarios (see Figure 19.2, bottom panel). Overshoot scenarios induce higher transient temperature increases, increasing the probability of temporary or permanent exceedence of thresholds for key vulnerabilities (Hammitt, 1999; Harvey, 2004; O'Neill and Oppenheimer, 2004; Hare and Meinshausen, 2005; Knutti et al., 2005; Schneider and Mastrandrea, 2005).

• There is considerable potential for adaptation to climate change for market and social systems, but the costs and institutional capacities to adapt are insufficiently known and appear to be unequally distributed across world regions. For biological and geophysical systems, the adaptation potential is much lower. Therefore, some key impacts will be unavoidable without mitigation.

19.4.4 Research needs

The knowledge-base for the assessment of key vulnerabilities and risks from climate change is evolving rapidly. At the same time, there are significant gaps in our knowledge with regard to impacts, the potential and nature of adaptation, and vulnerabilities of human and natural systems. However, as this chapter has tried to bring out, a growing base of information that is likely to be of significance and value to the ongoing policy dialogue does exist.

In this concluding section of the chapter, some of the research priorities from the different domains are highlighted. Clearly, this can only be an indicative list, suggesting areas where new knowledge may have immediate utility and relevance as far as the objective of this chapter is concerned.

This chapter has suggested that key vulnerabilities may be a useful concept for informing the dialogue on dangerous anthropogenic interference. Further elucidation of this concept requires highly interdisciplinary, integrative approaches that are able to capture bio-geophysical and socio-economic processes. In particular, it is worth noting that the socio-economic conditions which determine vulnerability (e.g., number of people at risk, wealth, technology, institutions) change rapidly. Better understanding of the underlying dynamics of these changes at varying scales is essential to improve understanding of key vulnerabilities to climate change. The relevant research questions in this context are not so much how welfare is affected by changing socio-economic conditions, but rather how much change in socio-economic conditions affects vulnerability to climate change. In other words, a key question is how future development paths could increase or decrease vulnerability to climate change.

As this chapter has brought out through the criteria for identifying key vulnerabilities, the responses of human and natural systems, both autonomous and anticipatory, are quite important. Consequently, it is important that the extant literature on this issue is enriched with contributions from disciplines as diverse as political economy and decision theory. In particular, one of the central problems is a better understanding of adaptation and adaptive capacity, and of the practical, institutional, and technical obstacles to the implementation of adaptation strategies. This improvement in understanding will require a richer characterisation of the perception-evaluation-response process at various levels and scales of decision-making, from individuals to households, communities and nations. In this context, it is worth noting that new research approaches may be required. For example, with regard to adaptation, a learning-by-doing approach may be required so that the development of theory occurs in parallel with, and supported by, experience from practice.

A significant category of key vulnerabilities is associated with large-scale, irreversible and systemic changes in geophysical systems. Large-scale changes such as changes in the West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, could lead to significant impacts, particularly due to long-term large sea-level rise. Therefore, to obtain improved estimates of impacts from both 21st-century and long-term sea-level rise, new modelling approaches incorporating a better understanding of dynamic processes in ice sheets are urgently needed, as already noted by WGI. Furthermore, central to nearly all the assessments of key vulnerabilities is the need to improve knowledge of climate sensitivity - particularly in the context of risk management - the right-hand tail of the climate sensitivity probability distribution, where the greatest potential for key impacts lies.

Finally, the elucidation and determination of dangerous anthropogenic interference is a complex socio-political process, involving normative judgments. While information on key vulnerabilities will inform and enrich this process, there may be useful insights from the social sciences that might support this process, such as better knowledge of institutional and organisational dynamics, and diverse stakeholder inputs. Also needed are assessments of vulnerability and adaptation that combine top-down climate models with bottom-up social vulnerability assessments.

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