Afforestation (e.g., Rudel et al., 2005)

Restoration or establishment of tree cover (e.g., Gao et al., 2002)

Change in albedo, altered water and energy balances, potential carbon sequestration

Land-cover modification

Ecosystem degradation (desertification)

Reduction in ecosystem services, reduction in biomass, biodiversity loss (e.g., Nyssen et al., 2004)

Changes in microclimate (e.g., Su et al., 2004)

Invasive species

Tamarisk (USA), Alaska lupin (Iceland)

Reduction of biodiversity, salinisation (e.g., Lee et al., 2006)

Change in water balance (e.g., Ladenburger et al., 2006)


Tropospheric ozone, toxic waste, oil spills, exhaust, pesticides increased soot emissions (e.g., Pagliosa and Barbosa, 2006)

Reduction in breeding success and biodiversity, species mortality, health impairment, enhanced melting of snow and ice (e.g., Lee et al., 2006)

Direct and indirect aerosol effects on temperature, albedo and precipitation

seeking a climate signal or explaining observations of impacts and even adaptations. For example, the noted effects of sea-level rise and extreme events are much greater when they occur in regions with large populations, inadequate infrastructure, or high property prices (Pielke et al., 2003). The observed impacts of climate change on agriculture are largely determined by the ability of producers to access or afford irrigation, alternate crop varieties, markets, insurance, fertilisers and agricultural extension, or to abandon agriculture for alternate livelihoods (Eakin, 2000). Demography (e.g., the elderly and the very young), poverty (e.g., malnutrition and poor living conditions), preventive technologies (e.g., pest control and immunisation), and healthcare institutions influence the impacts of climate change on humans.

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