Index

Note: * indicates the term also appears in the Glossary (Appendix I). Page numbers in bold indicate page spans for entire chapters. Page numbers in italics denote tables, figures and boxed material.

A regional database, which lists all references and can be searched by region and by topic, is on the CD-ROM included in this volume.

Abatement, 757-758

Abrupt climate change, 35, 374,375, 377-378,596 Access to technology/resources, 441,791, 813, 816, 826-827 Acclimation/Acclimatisation*, 246-248,557 Acidification. See Ocean acidification Active layer*, 88,663 Adaptability. See Adaptive capacity Adaptation*, 65-76, 81-82,117,717-743,748,781 Adaptation Policy Framework (APF), 732-733 anticipatory, 723, 798 autonomous (See Autonomous adaptation) barriers to, 69, 525-526, 638, 719, 733-737, 798, 815 context, 378

costs and benefits (See Adaptation costs and benefits)

deficit, 835

definition, 27, 750

differences from mitigation, 750

enhancement, opportunities and constraints, 731-737

examples of, 65, 722

factors in, 378, 383-384,719, 720

implementation, 53, 65, 766-770, 815-816

indigenous knowledge in, 456-457, 832, 833

inter-relationship with mitigation (See Adaptation and mitigation inter-relationships) international and national actions, 53,416-417, 731-733 introduction, 719-720, 748-750 key issues, 383-384

limits to, 69, 199,417,492, 719, 733-737 mainstreaming, 55,65,471, 513, 637-638, 639, 732, 749,

768,818,832-836 mitigation and (See Adaptation and mitigation interrelationships) multiple stresses and, 719, 729, 816-819 National Adaptation Programmes (Plans) of Action

(NAPAs), 69, 719, 731-732 opportunities, co-benefits and challenges for, 832-836 opposing views on, 786 planned (See Planned adaptation)

policy window hypothesis, 733

potential, 69, 782,786, 798, 804

practices/examples, 65, 117, 719, 720-727, 821

process/processes, 513, 720-721

reactive vs. proactive, 452, 719, 721

regional, 111-112, 722, 757-760

resilience and, 721

response capacity, 763-766, 767

response strategies, 69, 70, 781-782, 797-804

scales of, 747, 749, 753-754, 767-769

scenarios, 156-158,719, 724

substitutability for mitigation, 749,753-754, 766-767

sustainable development and, 813, 814-816

technology and, 727-728, 734

thresholds, 733-734

wealth, resources and development and, 43, 69, 276, 279,

620, 719, 755, 764-766, 767, 791, 814 See also Adaptation assessment; Adaptive capacity; specific systems and regions Adaptation and mitigation inter-relationships, 70-73, 745-777, 827-832 climate policy and institutions, 766-769 complementarity, 749, 750 cost-benefit analyses, 747, 754, 756, 757, 800 cost-effectiveness analyses, 755, 800 decision processes, stakeholder objectives and scale, 72,

747, 752-754 definitions, 749

differences, similarities and complementarities, 750 implementation, 766-770

inter-relationships and damages avoided, 747, 754-760, 783

inter-relationships, types of, 747, 750, 761, 762 introduction, 748-750 mainstreaming, 749, 768 overview, 748, 761

regions and sectors, 757-760

response capacity and development pathways, 747,

763-766,767,771 scales, 747, 749, 753-754, 767-769 substitutability, 749, 753-754,766-767 summary of knowledge from TAR, 751-752 sustainable development and, 747, 751,765-766 synergies, 72, 76, 747, 749, 754-756,762, 813, 827-832, 837

Tolerable Windows Approach (TWA), 754-755, 802 trade-offs, 72, 747, 749, 751, 754-756, 762 uncertainties, unknowns and priorities for research, 770-771

Adaptation assessment*, 137-138,717-743 assessment of adaptive capacity, 727-731 as bottom-up approach, 136, 749 characteristics summarised, 137 concepts and methods, 719-720 costs and benefits, 719, 724-727, 734, 800 current adaptation practices, 720-727 enhancing adaptation, 731-737 introduction, 719-720 See also CCIAV assessment

Adaptation costs and benefits*, 65,719,724-727,734-735, 756-757,781-782,798,836 in Africa, 435,452,453-454,453 in coastal systems, 40-41, 317, 336-339, 342, 343, 725 comprehensive estimates, lack of, 69 cost-benefit analyses, 747, 754,756, 757, 800 cost-effectiveness analyses, 755, 800 damages avoided, 77-78, 295, 754-760, 798-803 weighing, 72, 782 See also Trade-offs

Adaptive capacity*, 69,72-73,382-383,727-731,786 in Africa, 48-49,64, 69,435,454,459 in Asia, 492 assessment of, 727-731 in Australia/New Zealand region, 50 changes over time, 729-731 in coastal systems, 317, 318-322, 324-336, 344,786 determinants of, 791, 814 development and, 69, 317, 336, 364, 755 differences across human societies, 383 differential, 719, 728-729, 730 elements of, 727-728 in Europe, 547 exceedence of, 781

in food, fibre and forest products, 275, 279-280 in human health, 43, 393,406 in India, 71

in Latin America, 584, 605 mitigation and, 750, 827-832 in mountain ecosystems, 52 multiple stresses and, 719, 729 perceptions of, 735 in polar regions, 658-660, 661 of poor communities, 359, 492, 720 in small islands, 706-709

of social systems, 782, 791, 798

sustainable development, linkages with, 76, 817-819, 837 in water sector, 199

See also Capacity building; Coping ranges; Response capacity; specific systems and regions Advances in knowledge, 76-78 Aedes aegypti (now Stegomyia aegypti), 403-404,524 Aeroallergens, 402-403 Aerosols*

from biomass burning, 53,583, 590 direct and indirect effects, 84 human health and, 402, 590 Afforestation*, 599,750,758,759,761 Africa, 48-49,59,433-467

access to resources/technology, 441

adaptation, 416,452-454,459, 722, 726,767-769

adaptation limits, 734

adaptive capacity, 48-49, 64,435,454,459

agriculture, 48, 297,435,439,441,442,445,447-448,

451,452,459 assumptions about future trends, 443-444 biodiversity, 48, 223, 242,435,439,449,449 case studies, 454-457 climate and weather, 436-437,458 climate variability, 435,436-437,439,448,454 coastal zones, 40,439-440,448,449,450,451 current sensitivity/vulnerability, 435,436-443,451 disasters and conflicts, 442-443,447,451,459 droughts, 237,278,287,437, 734 economies, 440-441,454

ecosystems, 48, 213-214,243-244,435,439,442,449,

451,459 energy, 442,446,459, 767-769 extreme weather events, 377, 437, 444 fires, 435, 442 fisheries, 281,435,448,449 floods, 377, 398,414,435,437,447 food security/insecurity, 38,48, 275, 280,297, 300, 399,

435,440,454-456,719 forests, 299,435,439,442

future impacts and vulnerabilities, 38,48-49,59, 280,

444-450,451, 788,791, 825, 829 globalisation, trade and market reforms, 440-441 governance and institutions, 441 HIV/AIDS in, 69, 399,406,440,441,442,448 hotspots/risk areas, 438

human health, 48, 108-109, 399-400,416,435,436,

437-439,441,442,446-447,459 human population, 441

human settlements, industry and infrastructure, 439-440, 450

hydropower generation, 768-769 indigenous knowledge systems, 456-457 infrastructure, 439-440,441,450,453 introduction, 435-436 Kilimanjaro, Mt., 48,439,440,449 livestock, 278, 287,447,448

malaria, 48, 108-109,400,404,406,408,409,437-439,

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