These levels include individual households and farmers, private firms and national planning agencies. Effective mitigation requires the participation of the bulk of major greenhouse gas emitters globally, whereas most adaptation takes place at local and national levels. The benefits of mitigation are global, whilst its costs and ancillary benefits arise locally. Both the costs and benefits of adaptation mostly accrue locally [18.1.1, 18.4.2]. Consequently, mitigation is primarily driven by international agreements and the ensuing national public policies, whereas most adaptation is driven by private actions of affected entities and public arrangements of impacted communities [18.1.1,18.6.1].
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