15.2.1 Climate, environment and socio-economic state
For several decades, surface air temperatures in the Arctic have warmed at approximately twice the global rate (McBean et al., 2005). The areally averaged warming north of 60°N has been 1-2°C since a temperature minimum in the 1960s and 1970s. In the marine Arctic, the 20th-century temperature record is marked by strong low-frequency (multi-decadal) variations (Polyakov et al., 2002). Serreze and Francis (2006) have discussed the attribution of recent changes in terms of natural
Depth (m) Sea-bed depths Non glaciated land Height (m)
■7000 -5000 -3000 -1000 -200 200 500 1000 2000 3000+
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