Contents

Foreword vii

Preface ix

Introduction to the Working Group II Fourth Assessment Report 1

Summary for Policymakers 7

Technical Summary 23

1 Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems 79

2 New assessment methods and the characterisation of future conditions 133

3 Freshwater resources and their management 173

4 Ecosystems, their properties, goods and services 211

5 Food, fibre and forest products 273

6 Coastal systems and low-lying areas 315

7 Industry, settlement and society 357

8 Human health 391

9 Africa 433

10 Asia 469

11 Australia and New Zealand 507

12 Europe 541

13 Latin America 581

14 North America 617

15 Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) 653

16 Small islands 687

17 Assessment of adaptation practices, options, constraints and capacity 717

18 Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation 745

19 Assessing key vulnerabilities and the risk from climate change 779

20 Perspectives on climate change and sustainability 811 Cross-chapter case studies 843 Appendix I Glossary 869 Appendix II Contributors to the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report 885 Appendix III Reviewers of the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report 899 Appendix IV Acronyms 933 Appendix V Permissions to publish 937 Index 939 CD-ROM Inside back cover:

This volume: Summary for Policymakers, Technical Summary, Chapters, Appendices, Index Together with: Supporting material, Chapter supplementary material, Regional and subject database of references, Figures in Powerpoint from SPM and TS

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