Two of the most important requirements identified relate to research in climate change science, but have been clearly identified as a hindrance to research in impacts, adaptation and vulnerability.
• The first is that our understanding of the likely future impacts of climate change is hampered by lack of knowledge regarding the nature of future changes, particularly at the regional scale and particularly with respect to precipitation changes and their hydrological consequences on water resources, and changes in extreme events, due in part to the inadequacies of existing climate models at the required spatial scales [T2.5,3.3.1,3.4.1,4.3].
• The second relates to abrupt climate change. Policy-makers require understanding of the impacts of such events as the collapse of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. However, without a better understanding of the likely manifestation of such events at the regional scale, it is not possible to carry out impacts assessments [6.8, 7.6, 8.8,10.8.3].
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