Adaptation constraints and opportunities

The covariant mix of climate stresses and other factors in Africa means that for many in Africa adaptation is not an option but a necessity (e.g., Thornton et al., 2006). A growing cohort of studies is thus emerging on adaptation to climate variability and change in Africa, examples of which are given below (see also Chapter 18). Owing to constraints of space, not all cases nor all details can be provided here. A range of factors including wealth, technology, education, information, skills,...

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Mastrandrea and S.H. Schneider, 2005 Human-modified temperatures induce species changes Joint attribution. P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102,7465-7469. Rose, G.A. and R.L. O'Driscoll, 2002 Capelin are good for cod can the northern stock rebuild without them ICES J. Mar. Sci, 59,1018-1026. Rose, J.B., D.E. Huffman and A. Gennaccaro, 2002 Risk and control of waterborne cryptosporidiosis. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 26,113-123. Ross, M.S., J.F. Meeder, J.P. Sah, P.L. Ruiz...

Adaptation will be necessary to address impacts resulting from the warming which is already unavoidable due to past

Past emissions are estimated to involve some unavoidable warming (about a further 0.6 C by the end of the century relative to 1980-1999) even if atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations remain at 2000 levels (see WGI AR4). There are some impacts for which adaptation is the only available and Global mean annual temperature change relative to 1980-1999 ( C) 12 3 4 SRES AR4 WG 1 multiple sources B1 B2 A1T

TS3 Methods and scenarios

TS.3.1 Developments in methods available to researchers on climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability Since the Third Assessment (TAR), the need for improved decision analysis has motivated an expansion in the number of climate-change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (CCIAV) approaches and methods in use. While scientific research aims to reduce uncertainty, decision-making aims to manage uncertainty by making the best possible use of the available knowledge 2.2.7, 2.3.4 . This...

Costs and other socioeconomic aspects

The costs, benefits and other socio-economic consequences of climate variability and change for coastal and low-lying areas have been determined for many aspects, including heat stress and changes in plant and animal metabolism (see Chapter 4, Section 4.2 and Box 4.4), disease (see Chapter 8, Section 8.5), Table 6.8. Key hotspots of societal vulnerability in coastal zones. Table 6.8. Key hotspots of societal vulnerability in coastal zones. Coastal areas where there are substantial barriers to...

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Adaptation and mitigation trade-offs or synergies Processes and consequences for adaptation and mitigation GHG concentrations and global climate change Climate change impacts, damages avoided and residual risk Development status Illustrative examples organised according to the scale of action Awareness of limits to adaptation motivates negotiations on mitigation CDM trades provide funds for adaptation through surcharge Assessment of costs and benefits in A and M in setting targets for...

Crosschapter case studies

These cross-chapter case studies collect together material from the chapters of the underlying report. A roadmap showing the location of this material is provided in the Introduction to the report. When referencing partial material from within a specific case study, please cite the chapter in which it originally appears. When referencing a whole case study, please cite as Parry, M.L., O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson, Eds., 2007 Cross-chapter case study. In...

References

ABI, 2005 Financial Risks of Climate Change, Summary Report. Association of British Insurers, London, 40 pp. Abu-Taleb, M.F., 2000 Impacts of global climate change scenarios on water supply and demand in Jordan. Water International, 25,457-463. Achard, F., H.J. Stibig, L. Laestadius, V. Roshchanka, A. Yaroshenko and D. Ak-senov, Eds., 2005 Identification of 'hotspot areas' of forest cover changes in boreal Eurasia. Office for Official Publication of the European Communities, Luxembourg, EUR...

Box 84 Climate change migratory birds and infectious diseases

Several species of wild birds can act as biological or mechanical carriers of human pathogens as well as of vectors of infectious agents (Olsen et al., 1995 Klich et al., 1996 Gylfe etal.,2000 Friend et al., 2001 Pereira et al., 2001 Broman et al., 2002 Moore et al., 2002 Niskanen et al., 2003 Rappole and Hubalek, 2003 Reed et al., 2003 Fallacara et al., 2004 Hubalek, 2004 Krauss et al., 2004). Many of these birds are migratory species that seasonally fly long distances through different...

Key uncertainties confidence levels unknowns research gaps and priorities

While much is being discovered about climate variability and change, the impacts and possible responses to such changes result in significant areas that require more concerted effort and learning. 9.8.1 Uncertainties, confidence levels and unknowns While climate models are generally consistent regarding the direction of warming in Africa, projected changes in precipitation are less consistent. The role of land-use and land-cover change (i.e., land architecture in various guises) emerges as a...

Box 91 Environmental changes on Mt Kilimanjaro

There is evidence that climate is modifying natural mountain ecosystems via complex interactions and feedbacks including, for example, solar radiation micro-scale processes on Mt. Kilimanjaro (Molg and Hardy, 2004 Lemke et al., 2007). Other drivers of change are also modifying environments on the mountain, including fire, vegetation changes and human modifications (Hemp, 2005). During the 20th century, the areal extent of Mt. Kilimanjaro's ice fields decreased by about 80 (Figure 9.2). It has...

C32 Megadeltas in Asia

C3.2.1 Megadeltas in Asia (Chapter 10, Section 10.6.1, Table 10.10) There are eleven megadeltas with an area greater than 10,000 km2 (Table C3.1) in the coastal zone of Asia that are continuously being formed by rivers originating from the Tibetan Plateau (Milliman and Meade, 1983 Penland and Kulp, 2005) These megadeltas are vital to Asia because they are home to millions of people, especially in the seven megacities that are located in these deltas (Nicholls, 1995 Woodroffe et al., 2006). The...

Box 62 Examples of extreme water level simulations for impact studies

Although inundation by increases in mean sea level over the 21st century and beyond will be a problem for unprotected low-lying areas, the most devastating impacts are likely to be associated with changes in extreme sea levels resulting from the passage of storms (e.g., Gornitz et al., 2002), especially as more intense tropical and extra-tropical storms are expected (Meehl et al., 2007). Simulations show that future changes are likely to be spatially variable, and a high level of detail can be...

Case studies

9.6.1 Food insecurity the role of climate variability, change and other stressors It has long been recognised that climate variability and change have an impact on food production, (e.g., Mendelsohn et al., 2000a, b Devereux and Maxwell, 2001 Fischer et al., 2002 Kurukulasuriya and Rosenthal, 2003), although the extent and nature of this impact is as yet uncertain. Broadly speaking, food security is less seen in terms of sufficient global and national agricultural food production, and more in...

Key future impacts and vulnerabilities

The impacts of climate change have been projected for a limited range of health determinants and outcomes for which the epidemiologic evidence base is well developed. The studies reviewed in Section 8.4.1 used quantitative and qualitative approaches to project the incidence and geographical range of health outcomes under different climate and socio-economic scenarios. Section 8.4.2 assesses the possible consequences of climate-change-related health impacts on particularly vulnerable populations...

Box 63 Deltas and megadeltas hotspots for vulnerability

Deltas, some of the largest sedimentary deposits in the world, are widely recognised as highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise and changes in runoff, as well as being subject to stresses imposed by human modification of catchment and delta plain land use. Most deltas are already undergoing natural subsidence that results in accelerated rates of relative sea-level rise above the global average. Many are impacted by the effects of water extraction and...

TS4 Current knowledge about future impacts

This section summarises the main projected impacts in each system and sector (Section TS.4.1) and region (Section TS.4.2) over this century,13 judged in terms of relevance for people and the environment. It assumes that climate change is not mitigated, and that adaptive capacity has not been enhanced by climate policy. All global temperature changes are expressed relative to 1990 unless otherwise stated.14 The impacts stem from changes in climate and sea-level changes associated with global...

C34 Case study of Hurricane Katrina

C3.4.1 Hurricane Katrina and coastal ecosystem services in the Mississippi delta (Chapter 6, Box 6.4) Whereas an individual hurricane event cannot be attributed to climate change, it can serve to illustrate the consequences for ecosystem services if the intensity and or frequency of such events were to increase in the future. One result of Hurricane Katrina, which made landfall in coastal Louisiana on 29 August 2005, was the loss of 388 km2 of coastal wetlands, levees and islands that flank New...

Identify modifications for future adaptive capacity

The main steps of a community vulnerability and adaptation assessment and action approach. Several pilot communities in the Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa and Vanuatu are already using this approach to analyse their options and decide on the best course of action to address their vulnerability and adaptation needs. drivers of development (Kerr, 2005). In this context, the development of adaptation measures in response to climate change may provide an appropriate avenue to integrate both...

Small Islands

Sea-level rise and increased sea-water temperature are projected to accelerate beach erosion, and cause degradation of natural coastal defences such as mangroves and coral reefs. It is likely that these changes would, in turn, negatively impact the attraction of small islands as premier tourism destinations. According to surveys, it is likely that, in some islands, up to 80 of tourists would be unwilling to return for the same holiday price in the event of coral bleaching and reduced beach...