Casino Destroyer System
Much of the desert Southwest region of the United States was settled in the past century following a century of historically high rainfall. Towns and cities grew, and the Bureau of Land Management diverted water from melting snows, rivers, and underground aquifers to meet the needs of growing cities. Some of the country's largest and newest cities, including Phoenix, Tucson, Denver, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Albuquerque, have grown out of the desert using water from the Colorado River system. Even though the temperatures can be high, the air is good, and many people have chosen to move to these regions to escape crowded, polluted, or allergen-rich cities and air elsewhere. The surge in population has been met with increases in the water diverted to these cities, and fountains, swimming pools, resorts, golf courses, and green lawns have sprung up all over. In general the life can be comfortable.
Given the water scarcities present in the southwestern United States, many areas are looking to find new water resources to meet growing demand. The city of Las Vegas, Nevada, has experienced a population boom from approximately 1200 residents in 1905 to nearly 2 million residents in 2007. The main water source for the city is Lake Mead, which has seen a 100 ft decline in water levels during the past 8 years, reducing the volume from 27 million acre-feet to approximately 12.5 million acre feet, leaving the lake at well below half capacity.3 Furthermore, Lake Mead (fed by the Colorado River) has a relatively high TDS content of around 700 mg L. As such, the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) has been researching (1) methods to soften the water through systems with high recovery and no addition of chemical softeners (e.g., ZLD RO systems) and (2) other sources of water, including brackish surface and groundwaters. In the remainder of this chapter we present two studies one on the...
THE DESERT RESEARCH INSTITUTE (DRI) is the nonprofit research arm of the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE), with primary research campuses in Las Vegas and Reno and additional campuses in Boulder City, Nevada, and Steamboat Springs, Colorado. The DRI combines the academic world and entrepreneurialism, and faculty members are responsible for securing resources for their salaries. DRI faculty members do not receive state support, nor are their positions tenure-track. The DRI employs more than 500 faculty, support staff, and students who are engaged in one of approximately 300 projects producing about 50 million in total annual revenue. The DRI has an extensive list of private, public, and academic partners and ranks as one of the top 50 recipients of grants in Nevada. engineering. The Desert Research Libraries at Las Vegas and Reno maintain collections and services to support the DRI scientific community and other scholars. Resources include archival materials, aerial...
Environmental Protection Agency also administers several research offices across the United States. These include the following National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL), Montgomery, Alabama National Enforcement Investigations Center Laboratory, Denver, Colorado National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL), various locations National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), various locations National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL), various locations National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL), Ann Arbor, Michigan and Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada.
Global warming may have profound impacts on where people live. Rising sea levels may force millions of people to relocate to higher ground. Changing patterns of precipitation may affect the livability of inland cities such as Phoenix, Arizona Denver, Colorado or Las Vegas, Nevada. These are rapidly growing cities located in arid and semi-arid environments. Phoenix and Las Vegas depend on water that is diverted many hundreds of miles. If water sources decline, this will limit the economic and demographic growth of these cities.
The pilot, bench-scale, and desktop studies undertaken for the Las Vegas Valley indicate that desalination, while technically feasible, is costly. The initial estimates were, at best, 4.73 kgaP1 with substantial water loss involved. The follow-up study indicated that an optimized ZLD system could be set in operation at a cost of 4.51 kgaP1 with improved water recovery and reduced energy consumption. However, these costs still compare unfavorably to production costs of less than 1.23 kgaP1 for water from other sources. As such, one must carefully weigh the costs and benefits of implementing a desalination system, especially in inland settings where high recovery and adequate means for brine disposal are paramount to success. In a critical discussion of the interrelationship between increasing supply and rising demand, and the distinction between true needs and perceived needs, von Medeazza cautions against unchecked expansion into desalination and production of water simply because the...
Surface subsidence associated with groundwater extraction is a serious problem in many parts of the southwestern united States and in coastal cities such as New Orleans. Many cities such as Tucson, Phoenix, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, Las Vegas, and San Diego, rely heavily on groundwater pumped from compressible layers in underground aquifers.
Another feature of arid landscapes that speaks of past climate are remnants of ancient lakes. In the United States, the last major ice age, which ended roughly 14,000 years ago, had a significant effect on the weathering and erosion patterns of the Southwest. In California and Nevada, many ancient lakes existed, such as Lake Tecopa, Silver Lake, Soda Lake (Lake Mojave), Coyote Lake, Lake Manley, Panamint Lake, Owens Lake, China Lake, and Searles Lake. These lakes were contained geographically within the area bordered today by the Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, and San Bernardino Mountains in California and Las Vegas and the Colorado River in Nevada. Excavations into dry lake beds have produced fossils of shelled invertebrates, fish, and plants that could have survived only in a lake environment, allowing climatologists to piece together a climate time line. The climate-induced formation and disappearance of lakes has also influenced the development of river systems in the...
In the late 1800s geologist and explorer John Wesley Powell explored the West and warned that the water resources in the region were not sufficient for extensive settlement. But Congress went forward with a series of massive dam projects along the Colorado River, including the Hoover Dam, Glen Canyon Dam, and countless others across the region. These dams changed natural canyons and wild rivers into passive reservoirs that now feed large cities including Phoenix, Tucson, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, and San Diego. Use of water from the Colorado became so extensive that by 1969, where the river once flowed to the sea, no more water was flowing in the lower Colorado, the delta environment was destroyed, and water that Mexico used to rely on was no longer available.
Those fast-growing light-demanding species characteristic of large gaps in the forest, as well as forest edges and clearings, are the ecological group most frequently recognised by those attempting ecological classification of tropical trees. Various names have been coined for the group which reflect different aspects of their ecology. 'Pioneer' is perhaps the most widely used, and with 'early-succession' and 'secondary', refers to the abundance of such species in the early stages of secondary succession. 'Nomads' (van Stenos 1956) is a name suggesting the tendency of successive generations of individuals to move around the forest as they can only establish in new gaps. 'Gamblers' (Oldeman & van Dijk 1991) alludes to the high-risk way of life of these species with high fecundity and high mortality.
Snows, rivers, and underground aquifers to meet the needs of growing cities. Some of the country's largest and newest cities, including Phoenix, Tucson, Denver, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Albuquerque, have grown out of the desert using water from the Colorado River system. Even though the temperatures can be high, the air is good, and many people have chosen to move to these regions to escape crowded, polluted, or allergen-rich cities and air elsewhere. The surge in population has been met with increases in the water diverted to these cities, and fountains, swimming pools, resorts, golf courses, and green lawns have sprung up all over. In general the life can be comfortable.
A fourth facility, the Moapa Energy Project, is planned for construction in Moapa, Nevada, about 50 miles northeast of Las Vegas. The plant would require 15 million tires per year to generate 49 MW per hour, and would sell power to Nevada Power. The environmental impact statement and air emissions permits for this facility have been accepted, and public hearings are upcoming. Construction may begin in 1992, with operation commencing in 1993.1
The 130 mi. (209 km.) long, densely developed shoreline of New Jersey is particularly vulnerable to significant storm events such as hurricanes and the often more powerful Nor'easters. With rising sea levels, an extensive population will be increasingly vulnerable to these storms in the future. Much of the developed shoreline is built on barrier islands, giant sandbars that occasionally breach into the backside bays during the most intense storms. Although there is a substantial coastal infrastructure of bulkheads and sea walls, much of the valuable coastal real estate, including high-rise casinos and recreational beaches, could be severely damaged in the event of severe storms. In 1962, a Nor'easter, known as the Ash Wednesday Storm, destroyed 45,000 homes. The state is also frequently hit by moderate hurricanes, though they are typically less powerful than those that hit the southern United States.
After an extensive scientific assessment, the Department of Energy chose Yucca Mountain, located about 90 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, as the site for the repository. In June of 2008, the Department of Energy submitted a construction license application for the repository to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the licensing authority 12, 13 . The construction and operation of the proposed repository is highly controversial and is strongly opposed by many critics including Nevada's congressional delegation. Even if the licensing and construction of the Yucca Mountain repository continues, it is not likely to be in operation until 2020 or later. Despite assurances that the spent fuel currently at reactor sites and anticipated to be produced in the future may be safely stored there for at least 20 years beyond the life of the reactor, critics are concerned that the nuclear industry has yet to develop and demonstrate a safe long term solution to the issue of spent fuel...
Using whole tires as fuel for reciprocating grate power plants appears to be economically feasible in some situations and can meet environmental permitting requirements. One such plant in Modesto, California, is currently consuming 4.9 million tires per year. Another power plant is under construction in Connecticut and is expected to consume an additional 10 million tires per year. A second 10 million tire per year plant is being considered for an area near Las Vegas, Nevada. The main barriers to such plants appear to be local resistance to incineration projects and lengthy permitting procedures.
NEvADA HAS a unique geography that makes it extremely vulnerable to global warming and climate change. Much of the state is uninhabitable, and the United States government owns 86 percent of the 109,806 sq. mi. (284,396 sq. km.) land area. Nevada has more than 300 mountain ranges. The Great Basin Desert covers the northern part of the state, and southern Nevada contains a section of the Mojave Desert. With some sections of the state averaging only 4 in. (10 cm.) of annual rainfall, Nevada is the driest state in the United States, and meteorologists have noted a dramatic 7 degree F rise (3.8 degree C) in average annual temperatures in Las Vegas, the state's largest city, over the past three decades. In April 2007, Nevada Power was fined 1.1 million to settle a joint lawsuit filed by the U.S. government and Nevada. A total of 70 percent of the settlement was paid to Nevada, and 30 percent to the federal government. Nevada Power also agreed to spend 85 million to install cleaner...
A variable climate, diverse topography and ecosystems, increasing human population, and a rapidly growing and changing economy characterize the West. Scenic landscapes range from the coastal vistas of California to the intimidating deserts of the Southwest to the alpine meadows of the Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains. Since 1950, the West has quadrupled its population, expanding urban areas such as Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Santa Fe, Albuquerque, Tucson, and Phoenix. Numerous national parks and monuments exist in the West such as Zion National Park, Arches National Park, Death Valley, Canyonlands, and the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument and attract millions of tourists from around the world. Because of the extreme population growth and development, this region faces
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