Steps in Selection and Use of Carbon Inventory Parameter Values

Multiple sources of information may be available for a given carbon pool or a parameter required for a carbon inventory. It is necessary to select the most appropriate value for a given parameter. Even when only one source or value is available, the inventory expert has to make a judgment on its applicability. The following steps could be adopted for selection and application of default values or literature-based values for carbon inventory estimation:

Step 1: Select the land-use category for GHG inventory or project activity for mitigation or roundwood production programme Step 2: Select the stratum or the land subcategory or plantation species or age of the stand

Step 3: Select the carbon inventory parameter such as above-ground biomass stock or growth rate, soil organic carbon density or wood density Step 4: Conduct key category analysis to identify if the stratum and the carbon pool is a key category Step 5: Define the biophysical and management system of the stratum for which carbon inventory parameter values are required

° Forest or plantation type, dominant species ° Age and density of the stand ° Fertilizer application, thinning or irrigation

Step 6: Search all the potential sources of information for the selected carbon pool or parameter

° National, regional and global databases ° National forest inventory reports ° Published papers, books and reports ° National greenhouse gas inventory reports ° Project reports from the region

Step 7: Tabulate all the values available for the selected carbon parameter

Step 8: Calculate the mean and standard deviation for the parameter

° Identify the outliers or extreme values, which are beyond two deviations, for example

Step 9: Adopt quality control procedures and check for the following in the original studies

° Methods adopted for measurement and calculation in the original studies ° Documentation and assumptions used in the studies pool or standard o Biophysical factors of the location of the original study such as rainfall, soil type, age or density of stand o All conversions and units used o Error and uncertainty estimates if provided

Step 10. Select the value for the carbon inventory, which could be the mean value or even a single most appropriate value from among the list of sources.

17.8 Conclusions

Carbon inventory is required for most land-based projects aimed at carbon mitigation, roundwood production, community forestry, grassland and degraded land reclamation, agroforestry and national GHG inventory programmes. Earlier chapters presented methods for measurement and monitoring of different indicator parameters for different carbon pools, such as DBH, height, bulk density, wood density and soil organic matter concentration. This chapter presents the approach and methods for calculating carbon stocks of different pools as well as total carbon stocks per hectare and total area. Identifying suitable biomass estimation equations or developing location- and species-specific equations is critical to calculating above-ground and below-ground biomass for tree-based land-use systems. Deadwood and litter pools, which are unlikely to be key pools, could be calculated by estimating the stocks at two points in time and calculating the difference. Soil organic carbon is calculated using soil carbon concentration and bulk density values for a given soil depth. Calculation procedures for most projects such as grassland development and degraded land reclamation, agroforestry and shelterbelt programmes require estimates of differences between the stocks of relevant carbon pools at two points in time, and estimate annual stock changes by dividing the difference between the two periods by the number of years. The frequency of calculation and reporting of carbon stock change could be different from that of the measurements. Calculation and reporting are most often required annually, at the end of rotation or at the end of the project period and also at fixed intervals such as once in 5 years. Thus, estimation of annual changes in stocks of carbon facilitates calculation for any frequency.

The quality and reliability of carbon inventory estimates depend on the quality and suitability of various parameters used in the inventory. Most mitigation projects, roundwood production programmes and national GHG inventory processes require the use of published or unpublished values of various inventory parameters. The ideal approach to follow would be to generate location-specific values for the parameters using the methods described in this handbook. However, it may not be feasible or it may be too expensive to generate all the parameters required for a project or national GHG inventory. A number of sources, particularly the global databases, are available and are being used. It may not be necessary to generate some parameters locally, since they may not vary much from the published average values such as root to shoot ratio, wood density and biomass conversion and expansion factors. Even when values for a given parameter are generated locally, it is desirable to compare them with published values. The inventory experts should make an expert judgment before using any published or unpublished values by studying and comparing the values, the methods used and estimates of error or uncertainty, if any.

Inventory experts should explore all sources of information and data available for a carbon pool or a parameter from global to national to local sources. The importance of databases is being realized and several global and regional databases are being developed and made accessible to carbon inventory experts around the world. The quality of the carbon inventory is likely to improve in years to come with the availability of high-quality global, regional and national databases incorporating carbon inventory parameters as well as other relevant factors and data. It is important to recognize that the inventory parameters and factors (such as biomass stocks and growth rates, wood density and soil organic matter density) required for multiple purposes such as making a carbon inventory are also required for other forest conservation and development programmes, commercial or subsistence timber or fuelwood production and grassland reclamation. Thus, researchers should generate carbon inventory parameters for different regions and for multiple applications.

Chapter 18

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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