Methods of Analysis and Calculation Procedure for Biomass Carbon

The methods for estimating carbon stocks in different biomass pools using the indicator parameters measured in the field and laboratory are described in Chapter 17. The emission and removal factors required for calculation of CO2 emissions and removals from different land-use categories are above-ground and below-ground biomass stocks and growth rates, soil organic carbon stocks and growth rates, and deadwood and litter stocks.

The emission and removal factors developed using these guidelines for carbon inventory could be used in estimating CO2 emissions or removals based on the methods and procedures given in the IPCC guidelines (IPCC 2003 or 2006). The IPCC guidelines provide the worksheets for calculating CO2 emissions or removals, which work on the principle of emissions being equal to the product of activity data and emission factors.

The worksheets are provided (IPCC 1996, 2003, 2006) for each category and subcategory, as a series of tables where the columns consist of activity data and emission factors.

16.9 Estimation and Monitoring Stocks and Change in Stock of Soil Organic Carbon

The National GHG inventory requires estimates of changes in stocks of soil organic carbon in different land-use categories and subcategories for the inventory year. The methods for estimating soil organic carbon are described in Chapter 13. The approach to estimating stocks of soil organic carbon in different land-use categories is summarized as in the following steps:

Step 1: Selection of land-use categories and subcategories The approach and methods for selecting land-use categories and subcategories described for estimating biomass carbon stocks in Chapter 10 should be adopted for soil organic carbon estimation. Step 2 Stratification of land-use categories, area estimation and demarcation The stratification of land-use categories and subcategories adopted for biomass carbon estimation should be adopted for soil organic carbon also, so that the biomass and soil caibon estimate can be linked for the same land area. Different land-use categories, subcategories and strata should be marked on a latitude-longitude map of the country to facilitate periodical visits for sampling. Step 3: Sampling method and location ofthe plots The permanent plot method suggested for biomass carbon should be adopted for soil carbon. For sampling too, the method adopted for biomass carbon for different land-use categories, subcategories and strata should be followed for soil organic carbon. The approach to selection of sampling points within the plots selected for biomass carbon, described in Chapter 13, could be adopted here also. The sampling points selected for collecting soil samples should be marked on the latitude-longitude grid map of the country along with GPS readings for the location. Step 4: Selection of parameters and frequency of monitoring The parameters to be selected for estimating soil organic carbon are the same as described for projects in Chapter 13, namely

° Soil depth ° Soil bulk density ° Soil organic matter content

The frequency of monitoring of soil organic carbon is usually once in 3-5 years, since the incremental change in the stock is likely to be marginal compared to the stock that exists in the soil.

Step 5: Field methods, preparation for field sampling, field measurements and formats The material required for sampling, preparation for fieldwork, soil sample collection and bulk density measurement techniques described in Chapter 13 could be adopted here. Step 6: Laboratory estimation method Several laboratory methods are described in Chapter 13. Among the methods described, the "wet digestion method" could be adopted.

Step 7: Methods of calculation The method for calculating tonnes of carbon per hectare based on values of soil depth, soil bulk density and organic matter content (%), described in Chapter 17, could be used for each land-use category, subcategory and stratum during the year of measurement. The soil organic matter density (tonnes of carbon per hectare) should be used in the worksheets along with the data on area for each stratum (IPCC 1996, 2003, 2006).

16.10 Reporting of GHG Inventory Estimates for LULUCF or AFOLU Sector

The basic reporting table for GHG emissions/removals estimates prepared using the IPCC 2003 and 2006 guidelines is shown in Table 16.3. The inventory estimates for reporting in the format shown here can be obtained by adopting the worksheets and compilation sheets provided in IPCC (2003, 2006).

16.11 Uncertainty Estimation and Reduction

IPCC (2003, 2006) suggests estimation of uncertainty for different activity data and emission factors, CO2 emissions and removal estimates for different land-use categories and aggregate national estimates. Uncertainty estimation methods are described in Chapter 18. IPCC (2003, 2006) guidelines describe two methods for

Table 16.3 Basic reporting table for GHG inventory using IPCC (2003, 2006) in Gg. (From www. unfccc.org, GHG Inventory of New Zealand, 2005.)

GHG source

Net CO2

and sink

emissions or

categories

removals

CH4

n2o

x

CO

Total land-use categories

-24,594.33

4.04

0.03

1.00

35.38

A. Forest Land

-25,513.17

2.24

0.02

0.56

19.62

1. Forest land remaining forest land

-26,767.89

0.98

0.01

0.24

8.56

2. Land converted to forest land

1,254.72

1.26

0.01

0.31

11.05

B. Cropland

-639.14

-

-

-

-

1. Cropland remaining cropland

-671.12

-

-

-

-

2. Land converted to cropland

31.98

-

-

-

-

C. Grassland

706.91

1.80

0.01

0.45

15.76

1. Grassland remaining grassland

—,—,—

1.80

0.01

0.45

15.76

2. Land converted to grassland

706.91

-

-

-

-

D. Wetlands

0.72

-

-

-

-

1. Wetlands remaining wetlands

—,—

-

-

-

-

2. Land converted to wetlands

0.72

-

-

-

-

E. Settlements

97.16

-

-

-

-

1. Settlements remaining settlements

-

-

-

-

-

2. Land converted to settlements

97.16

-

-

-

-

F. Other land

38.98

-

-

-

-

1. Other Land remaining other land

-

-

-

-

2. Land converted to other land

38.98

-

-

-

-

The signs for CO2 removals are negative (-) and CO2 emissions are positive (+); CH4, N2O, NO^ and CO are the other greenhouse gases estimated for land-use sectors

The signs for CO2 removals are negative (-) and CO2 emissions are positive (+); CH4, N2O, NO^ and CO are the other greenhouse gases estimated for land-use sectors the estimation of combined uncertainties, namely simple propagation of errors and Monte Carlo analysis. Use of either provides insights into how individual categories and carbon pools contribute to uncertainty in total emissions in a given year.

16.12 Quality Assurance and Quality Control

IPCC (2000, 2003) provides definitions and guideline for adopting quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) practices, keeping in mind the need to enhance transparency and accuracy of the estimates in GHG inventories (refer to Chapter 18).

General QC procedures The general methods focus on processing, handling, documenting, archiving and reporting procedures. An example of QC activity and procedure involves the following:

• Check the integrity of database files

° Confirm that the appropriate data processing steps are correctly represented in the database

° Confirm that the data relationships are correctly represented in the database ° Ensure that data fields are properly labelled and have the correct design specifications

° Ensure adequate documentation of database and model structure

CO2 source/sink category-specific QC procedures General QC checks relate to data processing, handling and reporting, whereas CO2 source/sink category-specific procedures relate to the key categories. QC procedures are directed at specific types of data used in the methods and require knowledge of

• CO2 source/sink category

• Type of data available

• Parameters associated with emissions/removals

QC procedures focus on the following types of checks (these are only examples; refer to Chapter 5 of IPCC 2003 for details):

• Check that land areas are properly classified and that no double-counting or omission of land area has occurred

• Check consistency of time series activity data

• Check sampling and extrapolation protocols adopted

QA review procedures Quality assurance requires an expert review to assess the quality of the inventory and to identify areas where improvements are necessary. Preliminary QA procedure involves basic expert peer review by inventory agencies. Apply the review process to all source/sink categories, particularly the key categories. Secondary QA procedure involves, for example, expert peer review of calculations, assumptions and models used.

16.13 Remote Sensing Techniques for National Carbon Inventories

Remote sensing techniques are already used for estimating the activity data relevant to land-use categories and subcategories. Remote sensing techniques are beginning to be used for estimation and monitoring of emission and removal factors such as above-ground biomass, below-ground biomass and soil carbon stocks. The details of and approaches to adopting remote sensing techniques for estimating carbon stock values for different carbon pools are given in Chapter 14, which could be adapted to national carbon inventory processes.

16.14 Conclusions

Nearly, all the countries have prepared carbon and GHG inventories at the national level and submitted them to the UNFCCC (www.unfccc.org). National GHG inventory reports, as well as the compilation and synthesis reports of the UNFCCC, have identified a number of issues and problems in estimating CO2 or other GHGs for the inventory. Some broad issues identified are as follows:

(i) Lack of clarity in the methods as well as inadequacies of the methods

(ii) Lack of activity data and emission factors

(iii) Low quality or reliability of emission factors

(iv) High uncertainty of emission factors, leading to uncertainty in inventory estimates

(v) Unsuitability of default emission factors to national circumstances

The main limitation highlighted by all the studies relates to lack or low reliability of emission and removal factors. The critical step in preparing a reliable carbon inventory is to generate emission and removal factors nationally for disaggregated homogeneous land-use categories and subcategories. The methods provided in this handbook could be adopted for generating emission and removal factors. All the countries have to establish long-term carbon inventory programmes and permanent plots for monitoring carbon stock changes. The guidelines and methods provided in this chapter could be applied in estimating CO2 emissions and removals from land-use categories based on the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 1996), IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2003) and 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National GHG Inventory (IPCC 2006).

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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