Fallen Deadwood

Fallen deadwood occurs in forests and older plantations and could be the result of natural death or of strong winds, disease or pest attack and felling. In many project areas, fallen deadwood may be removed by the local communities for fuelwood and other uses. The sampling method could be identical to that used for estimating above-ground biomass. The following are the key steps in measuring fallen deadwood:

Step 1: Select and stratify the land-use category or project activity for which the fallen deadwood has to be estimated (Chapter 10). Step 2: Decide on the sampling method including sample size, number of plots, and sampling design used for estimating above-ground biomass of trees. Step 3: Select the sample plots identified for above-ground biomass and use the same plots.

Step 4: Assemble material required for field study, namely:

° Measuring tape for recording diameter and length and rope and pegs for marking the plot, and balance for weighing deadwood

Step 5: Identify the parameters for measuring fallen deadwood:

° Measure the diameter or girth at both ends and midpoint, and length of the fallen tree or branch

- If more than half of the fallen wooden log or branch is inside the plot boundary, include it as part of the plot for measurement

° Record status of the fallen wood, based on expert judgement

- Good physical condition (not rotten or decomposing)

- Cavity formed in the middle due to rotting or decomposition

° A suggested format for recording field data is shown below (in addition to the location, land-use category or project activity, plot size and number, date and name of the investigator)

Tree quadrat Tree Log/branch Statusb Diameter(cm) Length(m) Weight of the number speciesa number Tip Mid Bottom stem/


^Identify the species of dead and fallen wood log or branch, if possible bGood physical condition (not rotten or decomposing); cavity formed in the middle

° If cavity exists in the middle of the fallen stem, measure the diameter of the cavity (and exclude it from the volume calculation of the fallen deadwood) ° If the fallen stem is not very long or large and if feasible, measure the weight

- Using a spring balance by tying a rope to the fallen deadwood and lifting it

° Measure the weight of all the fallen deadwood logs and if weighing is not possible, measure the length and the diameter ° Record the observations in the suggested format and enter the data in a database ° Take a sample of deadwood for density estimation

- Measure fresh weight; estimate the dry weight and volume of the sample wood block

° Calculate the biomass using the methods given in Chapter 17

12.2 Litter Biomass

Litter includes all non-living biomass other than deadwood (normally less than 10 cm in diameter lying dead in various states of decomposition above the mineral soil. Litter, which includes woody and non-woody components, consists of plant parts that fall to the ground as part of the annual cycle, as a result of pest attack, physical damage such as that due to wind or lopping of branches and leaves, and could be further categorized into coarse woody litter (diameter greater than 6 mm), fine woody litter (diameter 6 mm or smaller) and non-woody litter (leaves and reproductive parts). Litter biomass, lying on the top of the mineral soil and on the floor of forests or plantations, could be a key pool only for older forests and plantations.

Litter may not be a key pool in barren or degraded lands, particularly in the baseline scenario.

Refer to Chapter 4 on the importance of measuring litter pool for different project types as well as for the frequency of measurement. Litter biomass can be measured using two methods:

(i) Annual litter production

(ii) Litter stock change method

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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