Contents

Preface v

Acknowledgements ix

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Removals from

Land-Use Sectors 3

1.2 Mitigation Opportunities and Potential in Land-Use Sectors 4

1.3 Linkages Between Mitigation and Adaptation 5

1.4 Why Carbon Inventory? 5

1.4.1 Carbon Inventory for National Greenhouse

Gas Inventory 6

1.4.2 Carbon Inventory for Climate Change Mitigation

Projects or Programmes 6

1.4.3 Carbon Inventory for Clean Development

Mechanism Projects 7

1.4.4 Carbon Inventory for Projects Under the Global

Environment Facility 7

1.4.5 Carbon Inventory for Forest, Grassland and Agroforestry Development Projects 8

1.5 Carbon Inventory Methods and Guidelines 9

1.6 Purpose, Organization and Target Groups for the Handbook 9

Chapter 2 Global Carbon Cycle, Carbon Dioxide

Emissions and Mitigation 13

2.1 Carbon Stocks and Fluxes 13

2.2 Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions 14

2.3 CO2 Concentration in the Atmosphere 15

2.4 Carbon Stocks in Vegetation and Soils of Different Biomes 15

2.5 CO2 Emissions from Land-Use Sectors 17

2.6 Mitigation Potential in the Land-Use Sectors 18

2.6.1 Forest Sector 18

2.6.2 Agriculture Sector 19

2.7 Conclusions 19

Chapter 3 Categories of Activities, Programmes and Projects

Requiring Carbon Inventory 21

3.1 National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 21

3.2 Carbon Inventory for Climate Change Mitigation

Projects and Programmes 23

3.3 Carbon Inventory for Clean Development Mechanism Projects 25

3.4 Carbon Inventory for Projects Under the Global

Environment Facility (GEF) 27

3.5 Carbon Inventory for Forest, Grassland and Cropland

Development Programmes and Projects 28

3.6 Conclusions 30

Chapter 4 Carbon Pools and Measurement Frequency for Carbon Inventory 31

4.1 Features of Carbon Pools 32

4.1.1 Distribution of Different Carbon Pools 32

4.1.2 Definition of Carbon Pools 34

4.1.3 Flux of Carbon Pools 36

4.2 Criteria for Selection of Carbon Pools 37

4.3 Key Carbon Pools for Different Programmes and Projects 38

4.3.1 Carbon Mitigation Projects 38

4.3.2 Roundwood Production, Land Conservation and Development Projects 40

4.3.3 National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 41

4.4 Frequency of Monitoring of Carbon Pools 41

4.4.1 Above-Ground Biomass 41

4.4.2 Below-Ground Biomass 42

4.4.3 Litter and Deadwood Biomass 43

4.4.4 Soil Carbon 43

4.5 Conclusions 44

Chapter 5 Carbon Inventory in Project Development,

Implementation and Monitoring Phases 45

5.1 Project Conceptualization 46

5.2 Project Proposal Development Phase 47

5.3 Project Review, Appraisal and Approval Phase 50

5.4 Project Implementation Phase 51

5.5 Project Monitoring Phase 51

5.6 Project Evaluation Phase 52

5.7 Carbon Mitigation and Non-Carbon Land Development

Projects: Implications for Carbon Inventory During Project Cycle 52

5.8 Conclusions 54

Chapter 6 Methodological Issues in Land-Based Projects 55

6.1 Baseline 55

6.1.1 Fundamental Steps in Establishing a Baseline 57

6.1.2 Project-Specific and Generic Baselines 57

6.1.3 Fixed and Adjustable Baselines 58

6.1.4 Baseline Scenario for Carbon Mitigation and Land-Based Development Projects 59

6.2 Additionally (UNFCCC) or Incrementality (GEF) 60

6.3 Permanence 61

6.4 Leakage 62

6.5 Project Boundary 64

6.6 Scale of the Project 65

6.7 Conclusions 65

Chapter 7 Carbon Inventory Under Baseline and Project Scenarios ... 67

7.1 Broad Approaches to Estimating Carbon Stocks 67

7.1.1 Approach Based on Default Value 67

7.1.2 Approach Based on Cross-Sectional Field Studies 69

7.1.3 Approach Based on Modelling 69

7.2 Carbon Inventory Under Baseline Scenario 70

7.2.1 Selection of Fixed or Adjustable Baseline 70

7.2.2 Baseline Carbon Stock Estimation at Different

Phases of Project Cycle 72

7.2.3 Baseline Carbon Stock Estimation and Projection

During Project Development Phase 72

7.2.4 Baseline Carbon Stock Monitoring During

Monitoring Phase 75

7.2.5 Baseline Estimation Through Use of Models 78

7.3 Carbon Inventory Under Project Scenario 78

7.3.1 Project Development Phase 78

7.3.2 Monitoring Carbon Stock Changes in the Project Scenario 80

7.4 Summary of Methods 83

Chapter 8 Techniques for Estimation and Monitoring of Project Areas and Boundary 85

8.1 Approach to Selecting a Method 86

8.2 Ground Methods 88

8.2.1 Physical Measurement 88

8.2.2 GPS Approach 90

8.2.3 Participatory Rural Appraisal 91

8.3 Remote Sensing Methods 93

8.3.1 Aerial Photography 94

8.3.2 Passive Satellite Data 96

8.3.3 Active Satellite Data 96

8.4 Estimating and Monitoring Land-Use Change 97

8.5 Conclusions 98

Chapter 9 Generic Methods for Inventory of Carbon Pools 99

9.1 Approaches to Estimating Carbon Stock Changes 99

9.1.1 Carbon "Gain-Loss" Method 100

9.1.2 Carbon "Stock-Difference" Method 100

9.1.3 Comparison of "Gain-Loss"

and "Stock-Difference" Approaches 101

9.2 Methodological Options for Estimating Carbon Pools 102

9.3 Methods for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass 103

9.4 Estimation of Below-Ground Biomass or Root Biomass 107

9.5 Estimation of Litter and Deadwood Biomass 108

9.6 Estimation of Soil Organic Carbon 109

9.7 Conclusions 111

Chapter 10 Methods for Estimating Above-Ground Biomass 113

10.1 Selection of Land-Use Category, Project Activity or Vegetation Type 115

10.2 Definition of the Project Boundary and Mapping of the Land-Use Category or Project Area 115

10.3 Stratification of the Project Area or Land-Use Category 117

10.3.1 Stratification for Baseline Scenario 118

10.3.2 Stratification for Project Scenario 118

10.3.3 Stratification Under Land-Use Change 119

10.3.4 Approach to and Steps in Stratification 120

10.3.5 Application of Remote Sensing and GIS

for Stratification 121

10.4 Selection of a Method for Estimation of Above-Ground

Biomass: the "Plot Method" 121

10.5 Selection of Appropriate Frequency of Measurement for the Above-Ground Biomass Pool 122

10.6 Identification of the Parameters to be Measured

For Estimating the Above-Ground Biomass Pool 122

10.7 Selection of Sampling Method and Sample Size 124

10.7.1 Sampling Principles 124

10.7.2 Type and Shape of Sample Plots 125

10.7.3 Number of Plots 127

10.7.4 Size of the Plot 130

10.8 Preparation for Fieldwork and Recording of Information 131

10.9 Sampling Design 132

10.10 Location and Laying of Sample Plots 134

10.11 Field Measurement of Indicator Parameters 137

10.11.1 Above-Ground Biomass of Trees 138

10.11.2 Shrubs 141

10.11.3 Herbs 143

10.11.4 Grass Production 143

10.11.5 Measurement of Palms and Lianas 144

10.12 Recording Data and Compilation 145

10.13 Long-Term Monitoring for Above-Ground Biomass 145

10.14 Conclusions 147

Chapter 11 Methods for Below-Ground Biomass 149

11.1 Below-Ground Biomass: Features and Broad Methods 149

11.2 Excavation of Roots 150

11.3 Monolith for Deep Roots 152

11.4 Soil Core or Pit for Non-Tree Vegetation 153

11.5 Root to Shoot Ratio 154

11.6 Allometric Equations 155

11.7 Long-Term Monitoring of Below-Ground Biomass 155

11.8 Conclusions 156

Chapter 12 Methods for Dead Organic Matter: Deadwood and Litter 157

12.1 Deadwood 158

12.1.1 Standing Deadwood 158

12.1.2 Fallen Deadwood 159

12.2 Litter Biomass 160

12.2.1 Annual Litter Production Method 161

12.2.2 Litter Stock Change Method 162

12.3 Long-Term Monitoring of Deadwood and Litter 163

12.4 Conclusions 163

Chapter 13 Methods for Estimating Soil Organic Carbon 165

13.1 Soil Carbon Inventory for Land-Use Projects and Greenhouse

Gas Inventory 166

13.1.1 Soil Carbon Inventory for Mitigation Projects 166

13.1.2 Soil Carbon Inventory for National Greenhouse

Gas Inventory 167

13.2 Methods for Inventory of Soil Organic Carbon 167

13.3 Broad Procedure for Soil Carbon Inventory 172

13.3.1 Selection of Land-Use Category or Project Activities, Stratification of the Area and Demarcation of Project Boundary 173

13.3.2 Determination of the Frequency of Measurement 174

13.3.3 Selection of Method for Estimation 174

13.3.4 Selection of Sampling Technique 174

13.3.5 Preparation for Fieldwork 175

13.3.6 Locating Sampling Points in the Field 175

13.3.7 Measurement of Bulk Density Parameters 176

13.3.8 Field Procedure for Sampling Soil for Laboratory Analysis 178

13.3.9 Laboratory Analysis of Soil Samples 178

13.3.10 Calculation of Soil Organic Carbon 179

13.3.11 Long-Term Monitoring of Soil Organic Carbon 179

13.4 Conclusions 180

Chapter 14 Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Terrestrial

Carbon Inventory 181

14.1 Implications for Carbon Inventory 182

14.2 Data from Remote Sensing 182

14.2.1 Remote Sensing and Ground Reference Data 189

14.2.2 Calibrating Remote Sensing Data 190

14.3 Methods to Estimate Biomass 190

14.3.1 Estimating Biomass Based on Remote Sensing

Vegetation Index 191

14.3.2 Estimating Biomass Based on Remote Sensing-Derived Land-Use Change Classes and GIS 193

14.4 Uncertainty and Accuracy 195

14.5 Feasibility of Remote Sensing for Different Project Types 196

14.6 The Role of GIS 197

14.7 The Future for Remote Sensing and GIS 197

14.8 Conclusions 199

Chapter 15 Modelling for Estimation and Projection of Carbon Stocks in Land-Use Systems 201

15.1 Types of Models and Application in Estimating and Projecting Carbon Stocks 202

15.1.1 Biomass Equations 202

15.1.2 PROCOMAP 204

15.1.3 CO2FIX 204

15.1.4 CENTURY 206

15.1.6 Application at National Level for Greenhouse

Gas Inventory 207

15.2 Description of Models, Data Needs and Procedure 207

15.2.1 Steps in Applying Biomass Equations 207

15.2.2 Steps in Applying PROCOMAP 208

15.2.3 Steps in Applying CO2FIX (Version 3.1.0) 210

15.2.4 Steps in Applying CENTURY (V. 5) 212

15.2.5 Steps in Applying ROTH 213

15.3 Conclusions 214

Chapter 16 Carbon Inventory Methods for National Greenhouse

Gas Inventory 217

16.1 The Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines 219

16.2 The IPCC 2003 and 2006 Guidelines 219

16.3 Carbon Inventory Methods for Land-Use Categories 221

16.4 What IPCC 2003 and 2006 Inventory Guidelines Provide 221

16.5 What IPCC 1996, 2003 and 2006 Inventory

Guidelines do not Provide 222

16.6 Application of Carbon Inventory Methods to National

GHG Inventory 223

16.7 Approach to Generating Carbon Emission and Removal

Factors for National GHG Inventories 224

16.7.1 Tier Definition and Selection for GHG Inventory 224

16.7.2 Key Category Analysis 226

16.7.3 Land-Use Categories and Stratification 227

16.7.4 Selection of Land-Use Categories, Estimation of Area and Preparation of Spatial Maps of the Land-Use Categories 228

16.8 Estimation and Monitoring of Biomass Stocks and Changes 229

16.8.1 Sampling Method and Location of the Plots 229

16.8.2 Permanent Plot Method for Biomass Carbon 229

16.8.3 Parameters to be Monitored for Biomass Carbon

Inventory and Frequency of Monitoring 230

16.8.4 Preparation for Fieldwork, Data Formats and Field Measurement Procedures 231

16.8.5 Methods of Analysis and Calculation

Procedure for Biomass Carbon 231

16.9 Estimation and Monitoring Stocks and Change in Stock of Soil Organic Carbon 231

16.10 Reporting of GHG Inventory Estimates for LULUCF

or AFOLU Sector 233

16.11 Uncertainty Estimation and Reduction 233

16.12 Quality Assurance and Quality Control 234

16.13 Remote Sensing Techniques for National

Carbon Inventories 235

16.14 Conclusions 235

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.

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