An understanding of the carbon cycle, particularly the impacts of human activities on global carbon stocks and flows, is critical to addressing climate change. The dominant human activities relevant to the carbon cycle are: (i) emission of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion and land-use change; (ii) mitigation through carbon emission reduction (through avoided deforestation); (iii) carbon sequestration in vegetation and soils; and (iv) substitution of fossil fuels with bioenergy. Estimates of annual CO2 emissions from land-use sectors are characterized by a wide range (0.5-2.7 GtC for the 1990s) and high uncertainty, and so are the estimates of mitigation potential in the forest sector (0.73-3.76 GtC up to 2030). Thus, there is a need for improved methods and better data for reliable estimates of CO2 emissions from land-use sectors as well as carbon mitigation potential of forest and agricultural sectors. It is also important to note the dominance of soil over vegetation in storing carbon in savannah, grasslands, pastures and cropland. Therefore, methods for estimating soil carbon are critical to these land-use categories and methods for estimating above-ground tree biomass along with soil carbon are critical to forests, plantations and agroforestry systems.

Chapter 3

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Your Alternative Fuel Solution for Saving Money, Reducing Oil Dependency, and Helping the Planet. Ethanol is an alternative to gasoline. The use of ethanol has been demonstrated to reduce greenhouse emissions slightly as compared to gasoline. Through this ebook, you are going to learn what you will need to know why choosing an alternative fuel may benefit you and your future.

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