Estimation of Carbon Stocks and Changes

and Data Sources 237

17.1 Above-Ground Biomass of Trees 238

17.1.1 Estimating Tree Biomass Using the Harvest Method 238

17.1.2 Estimating Tree Volume 238

17.1.3 Estimating Tree Biomass Using Volume Tables 240

17.1.4 Estimating Tree Biomass Using Mean Tree Weight 241

17.1.5 Biomass Equations 242

17.1.6 Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factors 246

17.1.7 Application of Methods for Estimating

Above-Ground Biomass 247

17.2 Above-Ground Biomass of Non-Trees 248

17.2.1 Shrub and Herb Biomass 248

17.2.2 Grass Biomass Production: Above the Ground 249

17.3 Below-Ground Biomass 249

17.4 Calculation of Deadwood and Litter Biomass 251

17.4.1 Deadwood 252

17.4.2 Litter 253

17.5 Soil Organic Carbon 254

17.6 Formulae and Calculations for Estimating

Different Carbon Pools 254

17.6.1 Calculation of Carbon Stocks and Changes for Climate Mitigation Projects 257

17.6.2 National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 258

17.6.3 Calculation of Biomass Stocks and Changes for Roundwood Production Projects 258

17.6.4 Carbon Inventory for Agroforestry, Shelterbelt, Grassland Management and Soil Conservation Activities 259

17.7 Data and Sources of Data 260

17.7.1 Data Needs for a Carbon Inventory 261

17.7.2 Sources of Data 262

17.7.3 Criteria for Evaluation and Selection of Parameters 267

17.7.4 Steps in Selection and Use of Carbon

Inventory Parameter Values 268

17.8 Conclusions 269

Chapter 18 Uncertainty Estimation, Quality Assurance and Quality Control 271

18.1 Causes of Uncertainty 272

18.2 Estimation of Uncertainty 273

18.2.1 Simple Error Propagation 274

18.2.2 Monte Carlo Simulations 275

18.3 Uncertainty Analysis 276

18.4 Reducing Uncertainty 276

18.5 Quality Assurance, Quality Control and Verification 277

18.5.1 Quality Control Procedures 278

18.5.2 Quality Assurance Review Procedures 279

18.5.3 Verification 279

18.6 Conclusions 279

Chapter 19 Implications of Climate Change for Carbon

Stocks and Inventory 281

19.1 CO2 concentrations and Climate Projections 282

19.2 Impact of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems 282

19.3 Models for Projecting Carbon Stock Changes

Under Climate Change Scenarios 284

19.4. Implications of Climate Change for Carbon Inventory 286

19.5 Conclusions 287

References 289

Index 299

Project Management Made Easy

Project Management Made Easy

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