Features CENTURY simulates the long-term dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) in different plant-soil systems (http://www. nrel.colostate.edu/projects/century/). The model can simulate the dynamics of grassland, cropland, forest land, and savannah systems. The grassland/crop and forest systems have different plant production submodels that are linked to a common SOM (soil organic matter) submodel. The savannah submodel uses the grassland/crop and forest subsystems and allows for the two subsystems to interact through shading effects and nitrogen competition. The SOM submodel simulates the flow of C, N, P and S through plant litter and the different inorganic and organic pools in the soil. The model runs using a time step of 1 month. The major input variables for CENTURY are presented in Section 15.2.4. These input variables are available for most natural and agricultural ecosystems and can generally be estimated from existing literature.
Applications CENTURY can be used for estimating plant production, yields of commercial crops, carbon input to soil as plant debris and soil organic matter for the following types of ecosystems or vegetation types
• Forest ecosystems
• Grazed ecosystems
• Arable ecosystems
The model can be applied for estimation of total carbon and biomass carbon at plot, project and national level.
Outputs The outputs of CENTURY model include values related to plant and soil such as
• Soil outputs total carbon, soil water dynamics and soil temperature dynamics
• Plant outputs yield of commercial crops, total dry matter products, and carbon input in soil in plant debris
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