A carbon inventory is required for projects involving carbon mitigation, traditional forestry and roundwood production as well as for other land-based development (noncarbon) projects. This chapter focuses on the carbon inventory process at different phases of a project cycle. A typical project cycle comprises conceptualization, consultation, proposal preparation, appraisal, approval, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Project proposals are written to seek support for investment capital or grant, technology transfer, capacity development or for conducting research. Most land-based projects involve appraisal, monitoring and evaluation of environmental, financial, social, institutional and legal aspects at multiple stages of the project cycle. The focus of this handbook is on environmental aspects, particularly assessment of carbon emissions, removals or carbon stock changes due to project activities that require a carbon inventory. Even projects not directly related to carbon mitigation require assessment of production of roundwood or grass, rates of growth of organic matter in soil and stock changes. Such agencies as the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, UN organizations, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Executive Board, bilateral funding agencies and national institutions have their own guidelines for developing project proposals, appraisal, monitoring and evaluation. However, the basic components of any project cycle involving carbon mitigation, roundwood production or land reclamation would involve multiple stages as illustrated in Fig. 5.1.
Estimation, projection and modelling of roundwood or carbon sequestration rates and stock changes are probably required at all stages of a project cycle. Thus, carbon inventory guidelines are required for all stages. Broadly, carbon inventory methods can be considered at two phases, namely
• Project development or pre-project implementation phase
° Proposal development
° Review and approval
• Project monitoring or post-project implementation phase
° Evaluation midway through and at the end
The broader guidelines required for carbon inventory projects are presented in this chapter for the pre- and post-project implementation stages. The steps described in the project cycle focus on implications for carbon inventory.
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What you need to know about… Project Management Made Easy! Project management consists of more than just a large building project and can encompass small projects as well. No matter what the size of your project, you need to have some sort of project management. How you manage your project has everything to do with its outcome.