Carbon Inventory for Projects Under the Global Environment Facility GEF

Addressing climate change concerns and, to some extent, prevention of land degradation under GEF involves increasing carbon sinks and reducing CO2 emissions. Among a number of operational programmes, the two that are relevant to carbon inventory are operational programme 12 on integrated ecosystem management and operational programme 15 on sustainable land management.

Projects under these two programmes are likely to lead to conservation or enhancement of carbon sinks - through reduction or prevention of conversion of forests and grassland, felling of trees and disturbance of soil, promotion of sustainable extraction of biomass, revegetation of degraded lands, and enhancement of carbon stocks in vegetation and soils of forests, grasslands and croplands - and therefore require carbon inventory.

GEF mechanism aims at providing incremental global environmental benefits in the form of enhancement of carbon stocks in lands due to project activities. Estimation of incremental carbon benefits requires, in turn, the following estimates:

• Carbon stock changes in the baseline, or without-project, scenario

• Carbon stock changes in the project scenario due to implementation of project activities

• Incremental carbon stock changes by deducting the carbon stocks under baseline scenario from the carbon stocks under the project scenario due to the implementation of project activities

Table 3.4 Illustrative list of approved GEF projects requiring carbon inventory

Number Project type

Country

Carbon pools

OP 12

Programme for the Management of Forests and Adjacent Lands

Benin Above-ground biomass and soil

The Middle Atlas Forest Restoration Project

Morocco Above-ground biomass and soil

OP 15 Ecosystem Restoration of Riparian Forests in Sao Paulo

Brazil Above-ground biomass and soil

Sustainable Land Management for Mitigating Land Degradation, Enhancing Agricultural Biodiversity and Reducing Poverty

Ghana

Above-ground biomass and soil

Integrated Land-use Management to Combat Land Degradation and Deforestation in Madhya Pradesh

Forest Protection and Reforestation

India Above-ground biomass and soil

Kazakhstan Above-ground biomass

Programme Partnership for Sustainable Forestland Management: Phase 1

Vietnam

Above-ground biomass

Estimation of "incremental" carbon benefit, although it may appear similar to that of "additionality" under CDM, is not governed by any approved methodologies. There is no strict definition of baseline scenario for estimating the incremental carbon benefit. Broad guidelines for estimating carbon additionality are given in www. undp.org (Pearson et al. 2005a). Some illustrative projects under GEF operational programmes requiring carbon inventory are given in Table 3.4.

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