The data acquired from remote sensing need to be calibrated. The broad categories of calibration are radiometric, atmospheric and geometric. Calibration applies to data that have not been pre-processed. However, many products available today are pre-processed and therefore can be adopted easily; if not, the information required for calibration is usually given by the distributor.
1. Radiometric calibration relates to the conversion of raw digital data into spectral radiance (Lillesand and Kiefer 1994)
2. Atmospheric calibration relates to "noise" in the data, which is a result of such components of the atmosphere as aerosols, water vapour and smog (Brown 1997)
3. Geometric calibration relates to the way a curved area is to be presented in a flat format, taking into account possible distortions in angles due to the location of sensors in relation to what has been observed.
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