Laboratory Analysis of Soil Samples

The soil samples collected have to be analysed for organic matter or carbon content in the laboratory. The bulk density of the soil also has to be determined to convert SOC content to tonnes of carbon per hectare for a given depth. Estimating SOC involves the following steps Step 1 Select the land-use system or project activity and the strata Step 2 Obtain soil samples from the field along with the following information Location, land-use system, project activity, date of sampling Plot or...

Estimating Tree Biomass Using Mean Tree Weight

Estimating tree biomass involves estimating the mean weight of trees according to DBH classes, multiplying it by the number of trees in the respective DBH classes and adding up the totals of all the classes in a given sample plot to obtain the total weight of all the trees in the plot, which is then extrapolated to per hectare by taking into account all the sample plots. Estimating the weight in this manner avoids felling a large number of trees and the associated cost of estimating their...

Biomass Conversion and Expansion Factors

The biomass volume tables and the default biomass stock as well as growth rates are often estimated considering only the merchantable or commercial volume. Estimating only the commercial component of the tree biomass, which is largely the main tree trunk, may be adequate for industrial roundwood producers. However, for estimating carbon stocks and changes for climate change mitigation projects and greenhouse gas inventory estimation, all the above-ground biomass including twigs and branches and...

Monitoring Carbon Stock Changes in the Project Scenario

Monitoring of carbon stock changes is required in the post-project implementation stage for all projects, whether carbon mitigation or other land-based conservation and development projects. The monitoring phase starts only after project activities are implemented and carbon stock gains begin to accrue in quantities significant enough to be measured and estimated. Unlike the project development phase, the monitoring phase is largely based on field and laboratory studies. Impacts of the project...

Leakage

Leakage is defined as the unanticipated decrease or increase in carbon emissions or removal outside a project's accounting boundary (see Chapter 8 for more information on project boundary) as a result of project activities. It can be referred to as the offsite effect (Aukland et al. 2003 Sathaye and Andrasko 2006). For example, reforestation of an area used for grazing can lead animal owners to take the livestock to new land outside the project boundary for grazing. The type of leakage varies...

Contents

Chapter 1 1.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Removals from Land-Use 1.2 Mitigation Opportunities and Potential in Land-Use 1.3 Linkages Between Mitigation and 1.4 Why Carbon 1.4.1 Carbon Inventory for National Greenhouse Gas 1.4.2 Carbon Inventory for Climate Change Mitigation Projects or 1.4.3 Carbon Inventory for Clean Development Mechanism 1.4.4 Carbon Inventory for Projects Under the Global Environment 1.4.5 Carbon Inventory for Forest, Grassland and Agroforestry Development 1.5 Carbon...

Above Ground Biomass of Trees

How Measure Diameter Breast Height

Trees are woody perennial plants having a single, usually elongated main stem with few or no branches on their lower part. Trees could be large or mature (DBH > 30 cm), medium-sized or growing (DBH 10-30 cm) or regenerating seedlings (DBH < 10 cm). A plant belonging to a tree species is considered for measurement in tree quadrats if it is taller than 1.5 m and its DBH is greater than 5 cm (a girth of about 15 cm). The height and DBH class to be considered in the tree quadrat will vary with...

Carbon Stocks in Vegetation and Soils of Different Biomes

The stocks of carbon in different biomes and the carbon flow pathways are depicted in Fig. 2.2. It can be observed that forest biome dominates the carbon stocks and has more carbon than the total carbon stock in the atmosphere. The emissions of CO2 follow a number of pathways (respiration, decomposition and combustion), and in addition carbon sequestration occurs in forests, grasslands and croplands. Globally, out of the total 151 million square kilometres of terrestrial ecosystem area, forests...

Carbon Inventory Methods for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

All countries that are signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are expected to prepare national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, annually in the case of Annex-1 (industrialized) countries and periodically - once in 3-5 years - in the case of Non-annex-1 (largely the developing) countries. A national GHG inventory requires estimation of GHG emissions by source and removals by sinks from all sectors in a country for a given year or period. All the member...

Approach to and Steps in Stratification

A stratification procedure for the baseline as well as the project scenario, which requires identical steps, is presented in this section Step 1 Define the project boundary as described in Section 10.3. Step 2 Obtain maps of the project area and overlay the different maps representing, for example, land-use systems, soil and topography under the baseline scenario. Step 3 Overlay the project activities on land-use systems in the baseline scenario, such as degraded forest land or grassland. Step...

Selection ofLand Use Categories Estimation ofArea and Preparation of Spatial Maps of the Land Use Categories

Land-use stratification may lead to a large number of forest or plantation types with differing management systems, a large diversity of cropping systems, etc. Stratification is very critical since the area under different land strata could be large, covering millions of hectares, with diverse rainfall, soil and topographic conditions. Thus, multistage stratification may be needed. Select the land-use strata for monitoring based on criteria such as extent of area under land-use system,...

Selection ofSampling Technique

The sampling method adopted for above-ground biomass could be adopted for estimating SOC, assuming that biomass and SOC are linked. The sampling method and the size of the sample depend on the size of the project, number of strata and the likely spatial variation in carbon density (tonnes hectare). Sample size could be estimated using the equation given in Chapter 10. Alternatively, the number of sampling points could be determined using the following approach Adopt the permanent plot technique...

Definition of Carbon Pools

The definitions of carbon pools according to IPCC (2006) are given in Table 4.3. Above-ground biomass (AGE) Above-ground biomass is expressed as tonnes of biomass or carbon per hectare. Above-ground biomass is the most important and visible carbon pool, and the dominant carbon pool in forests and plantations, although not in grasslands and croplands. Above-ground biomass is given the highest importance in carbon inventory and in most mitigation projects and is the most important pool for...

Introduction

Global environmental problems such as climate change, tropical deforestation, loss of biodiversity and desertification are receiving serious attention of all stakeholders including scientists, citizens and policymakers. Interestingly, all these environmental issues are linked to land-use systems. Climate change and its manifestations, particularly rising temperatures, changing precipitation patterns and sea level rise (IPCC 2007a), are of global environmental concern and have the potential to...

Land Use Categories and Stratification

Using the guidelines provided by the IPCC (IPCC 2003, 2006), the geographic area of the country is categorized according to Land-use categories forest land, cropland, grassland, etc. Subcategories land remaining in the same use category and land converted to a new land-use category Vegetation and management systems Forest land evergreen forest, moist deciduous forest, dry forest, mountain systems, scrubland and tropical desert Plantations Eucalyptus, Teak, Acacia, Pine, etc., age of the stand...

Implications of Climate Change for Carbon Stocks and Inventory

Climate change is one of the most important global environmental issues, which is likely to impact natural ecosystems as well as socio-economic systems (Ravindranath and Sathaye 2002). The global climate has warmed by 0.7 C during the last century and is projected to rise by 1.8-4.0 C during the current century (IPCC 2007a). This unprecedented projected rise in global mean temperature is likely to have adverse implications for forests, grassland and cropland vegetation. Climate is probably the...

Soil Carbon Inventory for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

Estimates of emissions and removals of SOC or stock changes in mineral and organic soils in land-use categories and subcategories are required for national greenhouse gas inventories. Stocks of SOC in different land-use categories need to be estimated for a selected inventory year using carbon stocks estimated at two points in time separated by several years because measurement may not be feasible over a period of 1 year. The methods described in this chapter could be adopted for generating...

Shrub and Herb Biomass

Estimation of shrub and herb biomass may be necessary for forests and plantations. This biomass is expressed as tonnes of dry biomass production per hectare per year. Shrub and herb biomass is estimated separately, since the sample plot size as well as the form of the plants is different. Biomass for these two plant types is estimated through the harvest method. Shrub biomass The field method for estimating the shrub biomass is described in Chapter 10. Shrub biomass includes annual as well as...

Litter Stock Change Method

The litter stock change method estimates the stock of litter biomass at a given time. The litter stock could be measured at two points a year apart or even 5 years apart. The method involves collection and weighing of the litter in the selected sample plot and the following steps Step 1 Select and stratify the land-use category or project activity for which the litter biomass has to be estimated (Chapter 10). Step 2 Decide on the sampling method, including sample size, number of plots, and...

Project Proposal Development Phase

Developing a project proposal involves clearly defining the specific objectives, describing project activities, defining the project location and area, choosing the methods for estimating and monitoring environmental and other impacts and project costs, specifying the institutional structure for the project, and selecting carbon pools and frequency for monitoring. Identification of project location and defining scale of the project The exact location of the project, including the administrative...

Methods for Below Ground Biomass

Below-ground biomass is defined as the entire biomass of all live roots, although fine roots less than 2 mm in diameter are often excluded because these cannot easily be distinguished empirically from soil organic matter. Below-ground biomass is an important carbon pool for many vegetation types and land-use systems and accounts for about 20 (Santantonio et al. 1997) to 26 (Cairns et al. 1997) of the total biomass. Below-ground biomass accumulation is linked to the dynamics of above-ground...

Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques for Terrestrial Carbon Inventory

Remote sensing is a technique that holds great potential for long-term monitoring of changes in area and carbon stocks. This chapter discusses the application of different techniques for different project types in terms of feasibility and reliability highlights uncertainties, cost and required technical capacity describes the application of geographical information systems (GIS) methods for carbon inventory for different projects and also assesses the role of remote sensing and GIS techniques...

Mitigation Opportunities and Potential in Land Use Sectors

During 2000-2005, the annual net loss of forest area was estimated at approximately 9.39 Mha (FAO 2006). However, the gross annual deforestation rate was approximately 13 Mha globally during the same period. Deforestation is a major source of CO2 emissions from the LULUCF sector. Further, forests are subjected to disturbances such as forest fires and pests or climatic events of drought and floods, and these disturbances affect about 100 Mha of forests annually. More than 750 Mha of forest land...

Carbon Inventory for Forest Grassland and Cropland Development Programmes and Projects

Globally, the rate of net forest loss was 7.3 Mha a year during 2000-2005 (FAO 2006). According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment scenarios (MEA 2005), forest area during 2000-2050 is projected to increase in the industrialized world by 60-230 Mha and decrease in the developing world by 200-490 Mha. Biodiversity, particularly from tropical forests, grassland and wetland ecosystems will continue to decline. Further, many tropical regions experience shortages of fuelwood, charcoal and...

Measurement ofBulk Density Parameters

Soil bulk density is defined as the oven-dry weight of soil per unit of its bulk volume. Bulk volume comprises volume of soil solids and pore spaces, and bulk density is expressed as grams cubic centimetres. Bulk density of soil indicates the degree of compactness and aeration, which is necessary for estimating the weight of soil per unit area, such as per hectare. Bulk density varies with soil texture - soils with fine texture tend to have lower bulk density than coarse-textured soils. - and...

Estimating Tree Volume

The plot method described in Chapter 10 provides values for tree parameters such as DBH and height. These values could be used to estimate the volume of the tress, which can be converted into weight terms using wood density. This method involves the following steps Step 1 Measure the height and DBH of all the trees in the sample plots (following Chapter 10). Step 2 Tabulate the values of height and DBH by species and by plot. Step 3 Estimate the volume of each tree in the sample plot using the...

Distribution of Different Carbon Pools

The two main carbon pools are biomass and soil carbon. Biomass is defined as the total quantity of live and inert or dead organic matter, above and below the ground, expressed in tonnes of dry matter per unit area, such as a hectare. Soil carbon is carbon held in soil as organic matter, humified material and in stable structures such as charcoal. Biomass is converted to carbon by multiplying it with a carbon fraction of dry matter. The exact value of the fraction varies within a small range for...

Grass Biomass Production Above the Ground

Estimating grass biomass production (tonnes per hectare per year) is important for grassland development projects in assessing the impact of a management practice on grass production. Grass biomass is expressed as dry tonnes per hectare per year. The method of estimation is described in Chapter 10. The calculation procedure for grass and herb biomass is as follows Step 1 Obtain the fresh weights of grass or herbs harvested monthly from the sample plots during field studies and estimate the dry...

Techniques for Estimation and Monitoring of Project Areas and Boundary

Estimating the area and delineating the boundary of a land-use category for greenhouse gas inventory and of area dedicated for a proposed project is the first basic step in preparing a carbon inventory. Methods ranging from field measurements, such as a physical land survey, to more complex methods involving the use of a satellite available for estimating land area and marking its boundary are presented in this chapter. The need for stratification of land area to increase the accuracy will be...

Methods for Estimating Above Ground Biomass

Above-ground biomass includes all biomass in living vegetation, both woody and herbaceous, above the soil including stems, stumps, branches, bark, seeds and foliage. Above-ground biomass is the most visible of all the carbon pools, and changes in it are an important indicator of change or of the impact of an intervention on benefits related to both carbon mitigation and other matters. Above-ground biomass is a key pool for most land-based projects. The features and the need for measuring and...

GPS Approach

The Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used to estimate land areas, either by walking along the boundary for small projects or by traveling in a vehicle for areas larger than that for ground physical measurements described earlier (Section 8.2.1). GPS is being extensively used in all research in land-based projects such as ecological studies and agricultural development. GPS is defined as the constellation of satellites that circle the Earth in a very precise orbit and transmit signal...

Description of Models Data Needs and Procedure 1521 Steps in Applying Biomass Equations

Methods for and steps in developing biomass equations are described in Chapter 17. Further, the application of biomass equations was also described in Chapter 9. A summary of the steps is provided here Step 1 Select the biomass equation relevant to the region, forest type, plantation species and age of the stand Biomass (tropical wet forests) 21.297 - 6.953 x DBH + 0.740 x DBH2 Teak volume in m3 V - 0.001384 + 0.363126 DBH2 H (FSI 1996) Step 2 Tabulate and enter the tree number, DBH and height...

Estimating Biomass Based on Remote Sensing Derived Land Use Change Classes and GIS

A combination of visual interpretation and digital classification can many times be a good method to generate information for an area (Bickel et al. 2006). Remote sensing can be used to detect locations of change when using data from two different periods. The method contains two categories, which have been used in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Bickel et al. 2006). Post-classification change detection approach The approach of detecting postclassification...

Carbon Inventory for Projects Under the Global Environment Facility

Global Environment Facility (GEF) is one of the global mechanisms aimed at promoting environmentally sustainable technologies, policies, measures and institutional capacity for addressing the goals of the Climate Convention as well as the Convention on Biological Diversity and other global environmental concerns. The GEF has been adopted by the UNFCCC as a financing mechanism aimed at addressing climate change. The facility operates on the principle of providing incremental cost to activities...

Size ofthe Plot

A carbon inventory requires that both size and number of sample plots be decided. Plot size too has implications for the cost of carbon inventory or monitoring. Larger the plots, lower the variability between two samples. Therefore, plot size depends on the extent of variation among plots and the cost of measurement. According to Freese (1962), the relationship between plot size and its coefficient of variation (CV) is given by the following equation where P1 and P2 represent plot sizes and...

Type and Shape of Sample Plots 10721 Type of Plots

Two types of sample plots could be adopted for land-based projects, namely permanent sample plots and temporary sample plots the type of vegetation determines which of the two is to be adopted. Permanent plots are used mainly for measuring changes in carbon stocks in perennial vegetation where, for example, the trees may have to be measured over a number of years. This approach is suitable for most of the land-based projects involving tree carbon pools Permanent sample plots are generally...

Biomass Equations

Biomass equations can be used to estimate the weight of the tree based on the measured DBH or DBH and height of each tree in the sample plots. Using biomass equations is a common and cost-effective method to estimate biomass of tree species present in a forest or plantation, and has been explained in detail in Chapter 15. This section illustrates how the equations are developed and applied in estimating the weight of individual trees as well as biomass per hectare of forests and plantations....

Carbon Inventory for Clean Development Mechanism Projects

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol to address climate change. The goal of CDM is to assist non-Annex-I countries in achieving sustainable development and Annex-I countries in achieving compliance with the commitment on Quantified Emissions Limitations and Reductions. The Annex-I countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have to limit their GHG emissions during 2008-2012 to the level agreed to in the Protocol. The design of a land-use or...

Litter and Deadwood Biomass

Biomass in litter and deadwood contributes only a small fraction, usually less than 10 , of the total carbon stock of forests and plantations. The frequency of estimating these pools depends on whether the two pools are left undisturbed (as in forests and plantations) or removed periodically as part of cultural operations or for fuel-wood purpose. If woody litter or deadwood is removed, it is suggested that it be weighed whenever it is removed if left undisturbed, the stock could be estimated...

Carbon Inventory for Agroforestry Shelterbelt Grassland Management and Soil Conservation Activities

Carbon inventory is required for agroforestry, shelterbelt, grassland management and soil conservation projects and activities. The methods for estimating carbon from biomass and soil are similar to those described in earlier sections. This section presents the key features and the carbon pools to be included. (i) Agroforestry Agroforestry is often a component of village ecosystems involving a large number of farms. Agroforestry projects aim to enhance (i) the density and diversity of trees and...

And Stock Difference Approaches

Of the two approaches, the Stock-Difference approach may be more suitable for estimating carbon stock differences for carbon mitigation as well as land conservation and development projects because of the following reasons Gain-Loss approach requires estimation of rates of growth and losses of carbon pools, which can be obtained through Stock-Difference approach. It is difficult to estimate the losses due to extraction, fire, decay, burning and other causes in the project area. Gain-Loss...

Steps in Applying Procomap

There are several modules of PROCOMAP for different types of mitigation projects, as described earlier in the chapter. Here, an example of one of the mitigation project types, namely reforestation, is used to demonstrate the steps involved in estimating the carbon sequestration in a short-rotation or long-rotation forest or plantation project. The model estimates the carbon stock changes in the baseline scenario, mitigation scenario and the incremental carbon stocks. Define land categories...

Key Category Analysis

The concept of key category analysis is used to identify the key land-use categories and subcategories that have a significant impact on a country's total carbon inventory from the land-use (AFOLU) categories. The key category analysis is conducted at multiple levels. Firstly, to select the key sector among the IPCC sectors, namely energy, industrial processes and product use, agriculture, AFOLU (or LULUCF) and waste. Secondly, among the key sectors selected within AFOLU or LULUCF, to select...

Steps in Applying COFIXVersion 310

Establishing the initial parameters in CO IX model A CO2FIX file needs to be prepared for each species or group of species with supporting parameters. Parameterization is an important step in estimating carbon stocks. Initial parameters need to be specified for each module. The growth of stem biomass (Bs) is expressed as a function of age. The values are initially derived from yield tables and further refined with data from inventories. The biomass allocation coefficients (F) for foliage,...

Globalclimatenotes.info

ALOS Advanced Land Observation Satellite , 2006, The ALOS Kyoto amp Carbon Initiative -Science Plan v 2.0. accessed Feb 2007. Amundson, R., Stern, L., and Raisden, T., 1998, The isotopic composition of soil and soil-respired CO2, Geodermatology. 82 83-114. Asia Forest Network, 2002, Participatory rural appraisal for community forest management Tools and techniques, Asia Forest Network, Bohol, Philippines. Aukland, L., Moura Costa, P., and Brown, S., 2003, A conceptual framework and its...

Estimating Tree Biomass Using Volume Tables

Volume tables are available for a large number of commercial tree species. A volume table is a two-way table, which gives the volume of a tree if its DBH and height are known. Once volume is known, biomass can be estimated using wood density of the species in question. Table 17.1 can be used to calculate the total biomass per plot and per hectare. The steps provided in Section 17.2.1 can also be followed for estimating the weight of trees and biomass per hectare. In this section, the volume of...