Anthropogenic CO2 Emissions

The emissions of CO2 have increased continuously during the recent decades (Fig. 1.1). Global average annual CO2 emissions from fossil fuels increased from 5.4 0.3 GtC in the 1980s to 7.2 0.3 GtC during 2000-2005 (Table 2.1) those from land-use change increased from 1.4 GtC during the 1980s to 1.6 GtC during the 1990s. It is important to note that the range of estimated emissions from land-use change is very wide, as much as 0.5-2.7 GtC for the 1990s, indicating the high level of uncertainty....

Carbon Inventory for Climate Change Mitigation Projects and Programmes

The mitigation potential of land-use sectors, particularly forests and cropland, has been estimated by several studies at the global, national and, in a few cases, at the project level (IPCC 2007c Ravindranath and Sathaye 2002). The uncertainty in these estimates is very high due to methodological as well as data-related issues (Chapter 18). Mitigation programmes and projects normally involve estimation of verifiable changes in carbon stocks over a given period, and estimation of the mitigation...

Participatory Rural Appraisal

Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) as a method has developed mainly through developmental work among non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and agencies, spurred by the need to find methods and techniques for effective interaction with communities (Mikkelsen 1995). The PRA is characterized by flexibility and learning on the site through face-to-face interaction. PRA tools relevant to land-based projects include semi-structured interviews with individuals or groups, participatory mapping with...

Roth3c263

Features ROTH models are developed at the Rothmstead Agricultural Research Station, UK ROTH C is a model for estimating the turnover of organic carbon in topsoils that takes into account the effects of soil type, temperature, moisture content and plant cover on the turnover process. The model uses a monthly time step to calculate total organic carbon (t ha) and microbial biomass carbon (t ha) on a years-to-centuries timescale it needs few inputs and those it needs are easily obtainable....

Criteria for Selection of Carbon Pools

Why select carbon pools for inventory Carbon inventory, in principle, involves estimation of changes in stocks of all the carbon pools or emissions and removals from all the pools. However, not all carbon pools are relevant to all land-use categories, or project types, and the general practice is to estimate the changes in the stock of a key pool or a set of key pools. Estimation of changes in stocks of all the carbon pools is expensive - the goal should be to maximize the cost-effectiveness of...

Fundamental Steps in Establishing a Baseline

Baselines can be characterized by making a projection of business-as-usual changes in land use and carbon stocks in the area where the project is proposed. The approach is to elaborate a scenario of possible future changes in land use and associated changes in carbon stocks under the without-project scenario. Usually this is done by considering past trends and the current situation and, based on this, making a projection. Two approaches to get the past trends for a project are (i) compilation...

Criteria for Evaluation and Selection of Parameters

The default values provided in many databases such as IPCC, FAO and EFDB are often based on a single or a few studies for a given forest or plantation type. The values normally provide global or national averages for a given parameter for a given land-use category or forest or plantation type. Often, multiple sources provide the values for a given parameter such as above-ground biomass growth rate or soil carbon density. For example, above-ground biomass growth rate for eucalyptus plantation is...

CO2 Concentration in the Atmosphere

Natural as well as human-induced activities contribute to changes in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Studies and analyses of air bubbles trapped within ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica have provided researchers with evidence of variation in atmospheric CO2 concentrations since the end of the last glacial maximum. Starting at about 200 parts per million by volume (ppmv), the concentration rose to 275-285 ppmv before the start of the Industrial Revolution and reached 366 ppmv...

Global Carbon Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Mitigation

The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles and describes the movement of carbon, in its many forms, within the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and geosphere. The global carbon cycle involves the earth's atmosphere, oceans, vegetation and soils of the terrestrial ecosystem and fossil fuels. Carbon in the form of inorganic and organic compounds, notably carbon dioxide (CO2), is cycled between different components of a system. For example, green plants absorb CO2 from the atmosphere during...

Sources of Data

The values of carbon inventory parameters can be obtained from secondary sources and primary or location-specific measurements. This chapter focuses on secondary sources, which include published reports on forest inventories, unpublished studies and reports, national and international databases, web sites, national communications, GHG inventory reports and other literature. (i) Forest inventories Studies on forest inventories conducted in many countries are an important source of data on...

Above Ground Biomass

Above-ground biomass, the most important carbon pool for all land-use systems and projects involving trees, is likely to change frequently, even annually, much faster than other pools for all projects involving tree planting. Such a change requires frequent monitoring of the pool. It can be observed from Table 4.5 that all forest- and plantation-related projects require monitoring of above-ground biomass Table 4.5 Frequency of monitoring of carbon pools in carbon mitigation and other land-based...

Methods to Estimate Biomass

The carbon pool that is most accurately estimated through remote sensing is above-ground biomass, which is described in this chapter. It is possible to estimate below-ground biomass from the data on above-ground biomass derived from remote sensing (see Chapters 4 and 11). Depending on the type of land-use system being monitored for estimating carbon stock, different features of change in vegetation over time have to be considered (Rosenqvist et al. 2003) these include different types of...

Preface

Global awareness of environmental issues has increased on an unprecedented scale. Deforestation, land degradation, desertification, loss of biodiversity, global warming and climate change are some of the environmental issues linked directly to terrestrial ecosystems, both natural and human-managed. Forests, grasslands and croplands constitute over 63 of the global land area. Terrestrial ecosystems play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Global rise in demand for food, fodder, fuel and...

Roundwood Production Land Conservation and Development Projects

Programmes and projects for roundwood production and for land conservation and development are aimed neither at reducing CO2 emissions nor at increasing carbon stocks but seek to enhance or conserve forest biodiversity, improve soil fertility and increase roundwood production. However, all such projects impact carbon pools, and monitoring or evaluation of these projects actually requires estimation of changes in some - though not all - of the carbon pools. The focus is largely on enhancing...

Estimation of Carbon Stocks and Changes

And Data 17.1 Above-Ground Biomass of 17.1.1 Estimating Tree Biomass Using the Harvest Method 238 17.1.2 Estimating Tree 17.1.3 Estimating Tree Biomass Using Volume 17.1.4 Estimating Tree Biomass Using Mean Tree 17.1.5 Biomass 17.1.6 Biomass Conversion and Expansion 17.1.7 Application of Methods for Estimating Above-Ground 17.2 Above-Ground Biomass of 17.2.1 Shrub and Herb 17.2.2 Grass Biomass Production Above the 17.3 Below-Ground 17.4 Calculation of Deadwood and Litter 17.5 Soil Organic 17.6...

Selection of Land Use Category Or Project Activities Stratifcation of the Area and Demarcation of Project Boundary

Estimates of soil carbon are required at the beginning of the project, before implementing the project activities and periodically after the implementation of project activities during the monitoring phase. The procedure presented here is for a project or a set of project activities and could be adopted for land-use categories for GHG inventory also. The key steps involved are as follows (i) Selection of project area Identify and locate the project area on a map. The procedure for selection of...

Estimation of Carbon Stocks and Changes and Data Sources

The main goal of carbon inventory projects and programmes is to estimate carbon stocks and changes in those stocks annually or at different times. Chapters 10-13 described the methods for measuring and monitoring different indicator parameters from which carbon stocks in different carbon pools can be estimated. The next step is to estimate the carbon stocks and changes, using the parameters measured and monitored in the field and in the laboratory. The analysis and calculation of carbon stocks...

Stratifcation Under Land Use Change

The project scenario may involve land-use change from the baseline or the land use may remain unchanged, with land remaining in the same category as that in the baseline, but with improved managed system, which will have implications for carbon inventory and methods to be adopted for carbon stock estimation. Land remaining in the same category The project scenario will involve no change in the land-use compared to the baseline however, the project activity may improve land management or prevent...

Conclusions

Carbon inventory is required for all land-based programmes and projects. Five carbon pools have been identified for such projects, particularly for carbon mitigation projects and mechanisms as well as for a national inventory of GHGs. The ideal approach will be to measure and monitor all the carbon pools every year. However, in practice, such an approach may turn out to be neither essential - all pools may not be impacted - nor cost-effective. Thus, there is a need to adopt appropriate criteria...

Biomass Equations

Features Biomass estimation equations are also known as allometric equations or regression models. Normally, these models estimate the biomass or volume of above-ground tree components (kg tree) based on DBH and height data. These equations are derived based on measured values of tree weight related to its DBH and height from sample trees. Regression models are also available for estimating biomass (tonnes) on a per hectare basis, based on estimates of basal area (m2 ha) of all tree stems...

Calculation of Carbon Stocks and Changes for Climate Mitigation Projects

This handbook focuses on the carbon Stock-Difference method for evaluating the impact of a mitigation project on carbon stocks, under which only the relevant carbon pools are included in the baseline and mitigation scenarios. The calculation procedure involves the following steps Step 1 Estimate the carbon stock change in baseline scenario for the period considered ACB change in carbon stock in baseline scenario in tC during the period t2 - t1 CB total carbon stock in the baseline scenario...

Carbon Inventory for National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

All the Signatory Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to prepare national greenhouse gas inventories periodically and report them to the UNFCCC. Greenhouse gas inventory includes estimation of emissions and removals of GHGs such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Under the UNFCCC, Annex I or industrialized countries are expected to estimate and report the GHG emissions inventory annually whereas non-Annex I or developing countries are expected to submit...

Project Development Phase

Most land-based projects involve activities that conserve existing carbon stocks in a given land-use system or increase carbon stocks through implementation of project activities. Estimation and projection of carbon stocks and changes during the project development phase are made using one or a combination of the following approaches (ii) Cross-sectional field studies The approaches in the project scenario refer to carbon stock estimates resulting from implementation of project activities. (i)...

Approach Based on Modelling

Models can be used at various phases of the project cycle to make projections of future carbon stock changes. Models are particularly useful during the project development phase, when estimates of future carbon stocks resulting from project activities are required at the project design or proposal stages. Models such as PRO-COMAP, the project-based comprehensive mitigation assessment process (Sathaye and Meyers 1995), CENTURY (CENTURY 1992) and CO2-FIX (Schelhass et al. 2004) can be used to...

Herbs

Herbs are non-woody plants that usually die at the end of the season. Herb-layer biomass includes all annual plants, regenerated saplings and grass biomass. Herb-layer plots are usually small (1 x 1 m) but more numerous. Biomass in the herb layer is part of the annual carbon cycle and is estimated by harvesting during the peak growth period. Methods for estimating biomass from grassland are given in Section 10.11.4. Parameters Species name, number of plants and fresh weight of standing herb...

Shrubs

Shrubs are woody plants that are usually short, often less than five metres, with several stems arising from the base and lacking a single trunk. Shrub plots include aIndicate the percentage crown cover present or damaged aIndicate the percentage crown cover present or damaged shrub species as well as younger trees with DBH lower than what is defined for the trees in the tree plots. Shrub plots are located inside the tree plots (Fig. 10.5). Parameters to be measured include species, number of...

Parameters to be Monitored for Biomass Carbon Inventory and Frequency of Monitoring

All the indicator parameters relevant to estimating the stocks of different carbon pools should be considered for periodical monitoring of different land-use category strata (Table 16.2). The selection of carbon pools for each land-use category would depend on the key category analysis. The following parameters could be considered for monitoring different carbon pools. The final selection of the parameters for field monitoring would depend on the land-use category and judgment of inventory...

Carbon Inventory for Forest Grassland and Agroforestry Development Projects

A large number of countries are implementing forest and grassland conservation, roundwood production and agroforestry development programmes and projects such as Forest and biodiversity conservation Community forestry and industrial roundwood plantations Agroforestry, urban forestry and shelter belts Grassland reclamation or development Carbon inventory, which includes estimation of stocks or rates of change in round-wood biomass and soil carbon, is normally required for any afforestation,...

Quality Control Procedures

General quality control procedures The general QC procedures include quality checks related to calculations, data processing, completeness and documenting and archiving procedures. Examples of QC activities and procedures include Checking the assumptions used in the models Checking the sampling procedure Checking for transcription errors in data inputs Checking the calculation procedures of carbon stocks and changes and units and conversions Checking the time trends in long-term monitoring for...

Standing Deadwood

Standing deadwood usually includes trees that are dead but not yet fallen to the ground and thus are part of the vegetation. The trees may have died because of disease or physical damage. Standing deadwood could be a key carbon pool in older forests and plantations but unlikely to be so in young plantations, cropland and grassland development projects. The method adopted for estimating standing deadwood is identical to that used for estimating above-ground biomass. The key steps in estimation...

Ground Methods

Ground methods refer to methods involving deployment of field personnel on the ground in the area that is investigated. Ground methods or field surveys can produce accurate and detailed data, which is their strength. On the other hand, the methods are often time consuming, expensive and demand skilled personnel, especially in remote areas and harsh terrains. Thus, these methods are suitable for smaller areas and require intensive preparation for detailed measurement of area and other features...

Annual Litter Production Method

Litter production is measured to assess the annual woody and non-woody litter fall as well as the turnover rates expressed as dry tonnes hectare year. Estimating annual litter biomass production is a complex task and involves fixing litter traps in all the sample plots and collecting and weighing the litter every month. This requires protecting litter traps and preventing removal of litter from litter traps in field situations. The method involves significant human effort. The following steps...

Baseline Carbon Stock Monitoring During Monitoring Phase

7.2.4.1 Situations Requiring Periodic Monitoring Monitoring of stocks of different carbon pools is required if these are expected to change under the baseline scenario or in the without-project situation. It is necessary to identify the factors driving changes in land use or management practices under the baseline scenario that contribute to carbon stock changes. Simulation of such factors is necessary for monitoring during the period identified for the project scenario. Potential factors that...

WW I wAym

Where n sample size (number of sample plots required for monitoring), ta value of Student's t statistic for a 0.05 (implying a 95 confidence level), Ns total number of strata designed, N number of potential sample units (permanent sample plots in the stratum level), S. standard deviation in stratum i, A permissible error in the mean, C. cost of selecting a sample plot in stratum I, Wi N N. The number of plots shall be allocated among the strata n n pt andpt ) 1 Wt s C, where n. is the number of...

Calibrating Remote Sensing Data

The data acquired from remote sensing need to be calibrated. The broad categories of calibration are radiometric, atmospheric and geometric. Calibration applies to data that have not been pre-processed. However, many products available today are pre-processed and therefore can be adopted easily if not, the information required for calibration is usually given by the distributor. 1. Radiometric calibration relates to the conversion of raw digital data into spectral radiance (Lillesand and Kiefer...

And Projection During Project Development Phase

The project development or pre-implementation phase requires estimation and projection of changes in carbon stocks over the selected project area and period in the without-project scenario. This is also referred to as ex ante calculation of projected changes in carbon stocks. These projected stocks and changes need to be reported at the project development phase to estimate and project the impact of the proposed project activities on carbon stock gains. 7.2.3.1 Approach 1, Based on Default...

Baseline Carbon Stock Estimation at Different Phases of Project Cycle

Estimation of carbon stocks and changes under the baseline scenario in the absence of project activities is necessary to evaluate carbon gains resulting from implementation of the project activities. Since the baseline is a projection of carbon stocks in the project area in the absence of project activities, stocks of different carbon pools may increase, decrease or remain stable under a given land-use system and management practice if no project is implemented. Estimation of carbon stocks and...

Baseline

All land-based carbon mitigation projects require estimation of net carbon stock gains resulting from the implementation of project activities. It is important to recognize that even in the absence of a proposed project, carbon stock will change because of natural factors or human intervention. This fact requires estimation of carbon stock changes that would have occurred in the absence of the proposed project, a situation or scenario referred to as the baseline. A baseline needs to be...

Steps in Selection and Use of Carbon Inventory Parameter Values

Multiple sources of information may be available for a given carbon pool or a parameter required for a carbon inventory. It is necessary to select the most appropriate value for a given parameter. Even when only one source or value is available, the inventory expert has to make a judgment on its applicability. The following steps could be adopted for selection and application of default values or literature-based values for carbon inventory estimation Step 1 Select the land-use category for GHG...

Fallen Deadwood

Fallen deadwood occurs in forests and older plantations and could be the result of natural death or of strong winds, disease or pest attack and felling. In many project areas, fallen deadwood may be removed by the local communities for fuelwood and other uses. The sampling method could be identical to that used for estimating above-ground biomass. The following are the key steps in measuring fallen deadwood Step 1 Select and stratify the land-use category or project activity for which the...

Steps in Applying ROTH

To run ROTH, it is necessary to prepare a series of input files that contain climate, soil and land management information. The running of the model involves the following steps Step 1 Input climate data such as monthly mean temperature, total monthly precipitation and total monthly open pan evaporation Step 2 Input soil data such as percentage of clay in soil and soil depth Step 3 Input land management data related to carbon simulation Monthly inputs of organic matter to soil Plant residues...

Editorin Chief

Martin Beniston, University ofGeneva, Switzerland B. Allen-Diaz, Department ESPM-Ecosystem Sciences, University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, CA, U.S.A. R.S. Bradley, Department of Geosciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, U.S.A. W. Cramer, Department of Global Change and Natural Systems, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany. H.F. Diaz, Climate Diagnostics Center, Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, NOAA, Boulder, CO, U.S.A. S. Erkman, Institute for Communication...

Acknowledgements

This handbook is a result of my long-term collaboration with a large number of authors of several reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and I cannot risk taking any names, since there are so many of them and I am sure to miss a few. In addition, my work in many developing countries on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory estimation and carbon mitigation potential assessment in land-use sectors has given me greater insights into the need for a handbook. I am grateful to many of...

Categories of Activities Programmes and Projects Requiring Carbon Inventory

Chapter 1 briefly describes the rationale and need for carbon inventory methods and guidelines and touches upon different programmes, activities and projects requiring carbon inventory. A carbon inventory involves estimation of changes in the stocks of carbon (in biomass and in soil) or its emissions and removal, normally expressed in tonnes of carbon per hectare, for a given land-use system, and time at a project level or national level. Carbon inventory is required for estimating (i) the...

Carbon Stock DifferenceMethod

The Stock-Difference method includes all processes that bring about changes in a given pool. The carbon stocks are estimated for each pool at two points in time, namely t1 and t2. The duration between the two points could be 1 year or several years, say 5, 7 or 10 years. As discussed in Chapter 4, the frequency of measurement of most of the carbon pools is once in several years - 5 years, for example, for soil carbon. Thus, the estimated stocks at t2 need to be deducted from the estimated stock...

National Greenhouse Gas Inventories

A national GHG inventory involves estimation of CO2 emissions and removals from different land-use categories for the selected inventory year. IPCC (2003, 2006) guidelines cover estimations from all the five carbon pools, according to different land-use categories. Further, the guidelines also include the key category analysis, which can be used for identifying the key carbon pools for the inventory (Chapter 16), although the choice may vary with the country, region and land-use category. The...

Uncertainty Estimation Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Carbon stocks and changes should be neither overestimated nor underestimated as far as can be judged (IPCC 2000). The uncertainty is normally high in biological and land-use sectors given the large variation in factors contributing to carbon stocks and changes. Uncertainty in the estimates that make up a carbon inventory is considered as a barrier in land-use sector, particularly in forest sector, to mitigating climate change. The uncertainty in estimated carbon stock and changes in land-use...

Why Carbon Inventory

Carbon inventory involves estimation of stocks and fluxes of carbon from different land-use systems in a given area over a given period and under a given management system. Further, carbon inventory is often referred to as the process of making such estimations. Carbon in land area consists of biomass and the soil carbon pools. The biomass pool includes living above-ground and below-ground biomass, litter and deadwood. The two broad methods for carbon inventory are carbon 'Gain-Loss' and...

Project Specifc and Generic Baselines

Several approaches and methods are available for determining the baseline. Two types of baselines commonly considered are (i) project-specific and (ii) generic or regional. The project-specific baseline The procedure to establish a project-specific baseline, also defined as the bottom-up method (Moura-Costa et al. 2000), compares different land uses or management practices to identify those that best represent the baseline scenario. The carbon stock associated with the baseline scenario becomes...

Verification

Verification activities include comparing the estimates made in the project or activity under consideration with those reported in literature or made by other institutions for similar projects or activities. Verification activities would help the carbon inventory experts to identify the limitations and improve the accuracy of the estimates, especially if the estimates from the project or activity under consideration deviate widely from other estimates made for a similar project or activity. The...

Carbon Inventory Under Baseline Scenario 721 Selection of Fixed or Adjustable Baseline

Carbon inventory under the baseline scenario involves estimation and projection of changes in stocks of different carbon pools in the project area at project development and monitoring phase. It is possible to visualize two situations with respect to baseline carbon stock changes with implications for carbon inventory the stocks may change, declining normally under the baseline scenario, or may remain stable over the period under consideration. The concept of baseline and baseline scenario is...

Simple Error Propagation

The error propagation equation yields two convenient rules for combining uncorrected uncertainties under addition and multiplication. First, where uncertain emission factors and activity data values (quantities) are to be combined by multiplication, the standard deviation of the sum will be the square root of the sum of squares of standard deviations of the quantities that are added. The standard deviations are expressed as coefficients of variation, which are the ratios of the standard...

Preparation for Fieldwork Data Formats and Field Measurement Procedures

The material required and preparation for fieldwork for different carbon pools are described in the earlier chapters above-ground biomass in Chapter 10, below-ground biomass in Chapter 11, deadwood and litter in Chapter 12 and soil organic carbon in Chapter 13. Refer to the respective chapters for the formats for recording field data and measurement procedures and techniques for different carbon pools. Given the national scale of sampling and measurements, it is very important to properly...

Physical Measurement

This ground method involves physical measurements of the units or parcels of land on the ground using measuring tapes. The material and preparation needed are as follows. Materials required include a compass, measuring tape or chain (30-100 m), hammer, survey pegs, permanent-marker paint, clinometer (ocular device showing changes in percent and in degrees), shovel and notebook Preparation for fieldwork Good knowledge and information on existing data from the area, a person with local knowledge...

Frequency of Monitoring of Carbon Pools

The rate of accumulation of different carbon pools varies with project types and activity. The suggested frequency for monitoring different pools is given in Table 4.5. The list is only illustrative, and project managers have to use expert judgment to decide on the frequency, depending on the project objectives, vegetation types, dominant species, silvicultural practices and local conditions. Features of different carbon pools that determine the frequency of monitoring are presented in this...

Modelling for Estimation and Projection of Carbon Stocks in Land Use Systems

Models are simplified versions of a system used to estimate and project certain features or functions or outputs of a system. In order to study a system scientifically a set of assumptions about how it works is often made. These assumptions, which usually take the form of mathematical or logical relationships, constitute a model (Law and Kelton 2000). Models are used to make projections of carbon stocks in forests, plantations, grasslands and cropping systems. Models are used to make separate...

Project Conceptualization

The project conceptualization phase involves conceiving the project idea, setting goals, assessing potential locations, deciding on the scale of the project, and involvement of institutions and stakeholders, as well as consideration of the likely environmental, social and economic impacts. Defining project goals The project could have multiple interrelated goals or a single goal. Examples of project goals are given below Environmental goals climate change mitigation, forest and biodiversity...

Sampling Method and Location of the Plots

The sampling method described in Chapter 10 could be adopted to determine the sample size, number and size of plots. The sampling procedure will be more complex since, at a national level, the area covered under each land stratum or category is large and spatially spread over large regions with diverse rainfall, soil and topographic conditions and management systems, compared to projects, which are normally spread over thousands of hectares. Thus, the sample plots could be larger than those of...

National Greenhouse Gas Inventory

Greenhouse gas inventory at the national level includes estimation of emissions and removals of GHGs in agriculture, forest land, grassland and other land-use categories. The key GHGs of concern for land-use sectors are CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Of these, CO2 is the dominant GHG, and CO2 fluxes between the atmosphere and the land are primarily controlled by uptake for plant growth and releases from respiration, decomposition and oxidation of organic matter. Emissions and...

Carbon Inventory in Project Development Implementation and Monitoring Phases

A carbon inventory is required for projects involving carbon mitigation, traditional forestry and roundwood production as well as for other land-based development (noncarbon) projects. This chapter focuses on the carbon inventory process at different phases of a project cycle. A typical project cycle comprises conceptualization, consultation, proposal preparation, appraisal, approval, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Project proposals are written to seek support for investment capital...

Fixed and Adjustable Baselines

A baseline can be determined by either assuming a fixed and steady state or using an adjustable or moving approach. The question to ask is whether the baseline established at the start of the project should remain constant throughout the project or be adjusted periodically, as described by the re-estimated baseline in Fig. 6.1a. (i) A fixed-state baseline approach can be used where the carbon stock (line B(S)) is unlikely to change over the years (Fig. 6.1a). Highly degraded lands or...

Grass Production

Grasslands are characterized by dominance of grass species, with a few trees or total absence of trees or other perennials. Estimates of above-ground grass production, which is part of the annual carbon cycle, may not be very relevant to carbon inventory projects or greenhouse gas inventory programmes. However, estimating grass production is essential for grassland reclamation projects. The method for estimating grass production is similar to that for annual herbs, and the following steps could...

Stratification for Baseline Scenario

The baseline scenario requires estimates of carbon stock at the beginning of the project, before project activities are implemented. Further, carbon stock changes in the control plots need to be monitored to estimate the changes under the adjustable or moving baseline scenario, where carbon stocks are expected to change over the years (Chapter 6). The land area considered for the project for the baseline scenario may consist of diverse land conditions in terms of Pre-project land-use category...

Carbon Inventory for Clean Development Mechanism Projects

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the project-based mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol to address climate change. The mechanism aims at reducing GHG emissions or enhancing carbon sinks in developing countries and in turn assists Annex I Parties or industrialized countries in meeting their greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments, promoting sustainable development in developing countries at the same time. Afforestation and reforestation are the two project activities permitted under...

CO Emissions from Land Use Sectors

Emission of CO2 from land-use sectors result from changes such as tropical deforestation and conversion of grasslands to cropland, degradation of forests and grasslands, biomass decay and burning. Net cumulative global CO2 emissions from land-use change during 1850-1998 are estimated at 136 55 GtC out of this, 87 emissions are from forest areas (Bolin and Sukumar 2000), attributed largely to tropical deforestation. Compared to annual average emissions of 0.9 GtC during 1850-1998, those from...

Data Needs for a Carbon Inventory

Data needs for a carbon inventory first include activity data on area under different project activities, land-use categories and subcategories at the national level. Secondly, estimates of stock and rates of change in stocks are also needed for different carbon pools. The key carbon inventory parameters required, related to the stocks and rates of change of different carbon pools and a few factors or constants. Growth rates of biomass and soil carbon pools. Factors such as density of wood,...

Approach Based on Cross Sectional Field Studies

Default values on carbon stocks in different carbon pools for different land-use categories and subcategories, which are required for baseline and project scenarios, may not be available often. Further, default values of carbon stocks for lands subjected to different periods of degradation are unlikely to be available in literature, and those for rates of change in carbon stocks (above-ground biomass and soil carbon) in degraded, barren, or fallow lands are even less likely to be available....

Carbon Pools and Measurement Frequency for Carbon Inventory

Global carbon cycle involves exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and the biosphere, apart from oceans. Plants fix CO2 from the atmosphere during photosynthesis to produce organic matter, which is stored in above- and below-ground parts. Bulk of the biomass in above- and below-ground plant parts is eventually transferred to the dead organic matter pool or it is oxidized or burnt. Dead organic matter, which consists of deadwood (standing as well as fallen) and litter, is either decomposed or...

Generic Methods for Inventory of Carbon Pools

A carbon inventory involves estimation of changes in the stocks of the carbon pools over 1 year or between two points in time. Carbon inventory requires measurement and monitoring of all the selected carbon pools relevant to a land-based project or national greenhouse gas inventory for land-use categories. The features of different carbon pools described in Chapter 4 showed the need for different methods for inventory of different pools. Because multiple methods are available even for a single...

Carbon Inventory Methods

Handbook for Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Carbon Mitigation and Roundwood Production Projects Centre for Sustainable Technologies & Centre for Climate Sciences and Policy Research Link ping University & Earth Sciences Centre G teborg University Sweden ISBN-13 978-1-4020-6546-0 e-ISBN-13 978-1-4020-6547-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2007936020 2008 Springer Science + Business Media B.V. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or...

Selection of Method for Estimation

A number of methods available for carbon inventory are described in Section 13.1. The selection of the method depends on the following Size of the project as determined by the number of sampling strata and the total number of soil samples to be analysed remote sensing techniques could be deployed for very large projects and if the samples are few, CHN analyser could be used. Accuracy and cost, which may involve a trade-off a CHN analyser is a very accurate but expensive however, wet digestion...

Aerial Photography

Aerial photographs are photographs taken from a distance, from an airplane for example. Cameras on airplanes are the simplest and oldest form of aerial sensors used to monitor features of land surface. The spectral resolution of cameras is usually very coarse, which makes aerial photography more useful when finer spatial data are more important than spectral information. Aerial photography is therefore useful for purposes requiring a finer scale, such as areas ranging from a few hundred to a...

Agriculture Sector

In the agriculture sector, the dominant carbon mitigation options include restoration of cultivated organic soils, better management of cropland and grazing land and restoration of degraded lands. The mitigation potential of the sector is dominated by carbon sink enhancement of agricultural soils the potential of carbon sequestration in soils is estimated to account for 90 of the total mitigation potential of agriculture sector and involves the following activities Restoration of cultivated...

Determination of the Frequency of Measurement

Soil carbon stocks in undisturbed soil are fairly stable however, land-use change or any disturbance to topsoil leads to loss of carbon stocks. Conversion of grasslands and forests to other uses involving soil disturbance leads to loss of SOC. Besides land-use change, management practices can have a significant impact on stocks of SOC, particularly in cropping systems and grasslands. The frequency of measuring soil carbon stocks varies with land-use system, project activity and management...

Quality Assurance Review Procedures

Quality assurance comprises activities outside the actual carbon inventory processes. The estimates of carbon stocks and changes may be reviewed by external agencies in an unbiased way. It is important to involve experts or reviewers who were not involved in the carbon inventory estimations. The experts are required to assess the quality of the carbon inventory and to identify areas where improvements are necessary. Quality assurance procedure involves expert peer review covering Review of...

Below Ground Biomass

Below-ground biomass is unlikely to be measured for majority of the forest and tree plantation projects because of the complexity of the methods and high cost (see Chapter 11) - it is more usual to calculate the quantity of below-ground biomass by taking it as a proportion or function of the above-ground biomass pool. When the quantity can be measured, say for afforestation projects, the frequency could be once in five years. Forest management activities are unlikely to impact below-ground...

Carbon Mitigation Projects

The main goal of carbon mitigation projects is to maximize gains in carbon stocks and minimize emissions of CO2 from land-use systems. For example, in avoided deforestation projects, the main goal is to reduce the emissions of CO2 from forest land conversion or harvest of trees, whereas in afforestation and reforestation projects, maximizing the biomass and soil carbon stocks is the main focus. The selection of carbon pools depends on the land-use system considered for mitigation. The key...

Stratification for Project Scenario

Carbon inventory during the project scenario requires estimation of stocks and changes in stocks annually or any other selected frequency of monitoring above-ground biomass. Carbon stocks may have to be estimated separately for the total area under each activity (e.g. short-rotation plantation or natural regeneration) and for the total project area consisting of multiple activities (e.g. area under short rotation and that under natural regeneration and so on). Therefore, each of the activities...

Methodological Issues in Land Based Projects

All land-based projects require carbon inventory. Carbon inventory for land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) projects for climate change mitigation is contentious because of both methodological issues and uncertainty in the data required to estimate gains in carbon stocks. LULUCF projects include carbon mitigation activities in three categories, namely forestry, cropland and grassland. The complexity of methods for estimation and projection of carbon stock changes leads to several...

Permanent Plot Method for Biomass Carbon

Long-term monitoring of selected carbon pools in the land-use strata would require adoption of the permanent plot technique (refer to Chapter 10). The technique enables periodical measurement and monitoring of carbon pools leading to calculation of rates of growth or decline in a carbon pool. These plots should be located in a way that facilitates periodic visits over a number of years or even decades. The permanent plots must be located using permanent markers and landmarks on the ground as...

Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Removals from Land Use Sectors

Carbon dioxide is the dominant GHG from land-use sector, particularly forests and grasslands. Forests accounted for about 30 , or 3,952 million hectares (Mha), of the global geographic area, followed by grasslands (about 27 ), in 2005. Carbon dioxide emissions from land use and land-use change sector were estimated at 1.6 GtC (ranging from 0.5 to 2.7) annually during the 1990s (IPCC 2007a). Further, the net emissions from land use, land-use change and forest (LULUCF) sector in the tropics at...

Methods of Analysis and Calculation Procedure for Biomass Carbon

The methods for estimating carbon stocks in different biomass pools using the indicator parameters measured in the field and laboratory are described in Chapter 17. The emission and removal factors required for calculation of CO2 emissions and removals from different land-use categories are above-ground and below-ground biomass stocks and growth rates, soil organic carbon stocks and growth rates, and deadwood and litter stocks. The emission and removal factors developed using these guidelines...

Baseline Estimation Through Use of Models

Carbon stock estimation and projection could be made using models as described in Section 7.1.3. Adoption of models such as PRO-COMAP or CO2-FIX also requires data on carbon stocks and rates of changes. Input data for the models could be obtained from default data sources or from field measurements. The models help in projecting carbon stocks for a given period. The steps involved include the following Step 2 Select a model suitable for the project activities. Step 3 Identify the input...

Soil Carbon

As mentioned earlier (Section 4.1.1), soil carbon is next only to above-ground biomass in terms of its contribution to the incremental total carbon stock in forests and plantations in grassland or cropland projects, soil carbon is the predominant carbon pool. Soil carbon is likely to accumulate in forest and plantation projects, and the annual incremental stock over the baseline stock is likely to be very small, making it difficult to measure. For example, in degraded lands considered for...

Estimating Biomass Based on Remote Sensing Vegetation Index

Indices based on remote sensing data are a set of useful techniques to be used for estimating biomass. Some examples of indices are as follows NDVI, or normalized difference vegetation index (Dong et al. 2003 Zheng et al. 2004 Fuentes et al. 2006 Tan et al. 2007) EVI, or enhanced vegetation index (Huete et al. 2002 Nagler et al. 2005 Ostwald and Chen 2006) LAI, or leaf area index (Fassnacht et al. 1997) PAR, or photosynthetically active radiation (Wylie et al. 2007) and FPC, or foliage...

Purpose Organization and Target Groups for the Handbook

A carbon mitigation project developer, a monitoring expert or a GHG inventory compiler requires access to a manual of guidelines and methods that provides practical guidance using a cookbook approach, describing reliable and cost-effective methods, sampling procedures, field and laboratory measurement techniques, calculation procedures, modelling and reporting protocols and so on. However, no single existing manual or book provides all the guidelines or information required for carbon...

Application at National Level for Greenhouse Gas Inventory

The models described above in Sections 15.1.1-15.1.5 can also be used at the national level for estimating biomass and soil carbon stocks and changes for different land categories and subcategories such as forest land (eucalyptus plantation or deciduous forest), grassland and cropland. These models are yet to be adopted for national greenhouse gas inventories. Adoption of these models at national level would require multistage stratification of land categories at the national level to that of...

Carbon Inventory Under Baseline and Project Scenarios

The main goal of carbon inventory for carbon mitigation projects is to estimate the incremental or additional biomass and soil carbon stocks gained because of project activities. Estimation of incremental or additional carbon benefit or stock gain requires monitoring of carbon stocks of a given area and over a given period under the without-project or baseline scenario as well as changes in stocks for the project area over the same period as a result of implementation of project activities...

Estimating Tree Biomass Using the Harvest Method

The harvest method was described in Chapter 10 and involves the following steps Selecting sample plots for each stratum (see Section 10.3 for stratum definition) representing a land-use category or project activity Harvesting of all the trees in each of the sample plots Measuring the fresh weight of the commercial stem, twigs and branches separately for all the harvested trees in the sample plots Calculating the dry weight of commercial stem and twigs and branches per plot Aggregating the...

Carbon Inventory for Climate Change Mitigation Projects or Programmes

Land-use sectors have been recognized as critical to addressing climate change concerns. Mitigation of climate change through land-based activities has been a contentious issue in global negotiations under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol because of several methodological issues related to measurement, monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon benefits (Ravindranath and Sathaye 2002). Carbon inventory for mitigation projects requires methods for estimating carbon stocks and changes due...

Co2 FIX

Features The CO2FIX model is developed under the Carbon Sequestration and Sustainable Forest Management (CASFOR) project as an inter-institutional collaboration involving ALTERRA, the Netherlands The Instituto de Ecologia of University of Mexico, Mexico The Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigation y Ensenanza (CATIE), Costa Rica and European Forest Institute, Finland. The version CO2FIX V 3.1 is a simple carbon bookkeeping model that consists of six modules, one each for the following...

Measurement of Palms and Lianas

Palms Palms are a group of large tree-like plants with a single, tall, unbranched stem with a crown of large fan-shaped leaves. The height alone is adequate for estimating the biomass of palms since, in palms, biomass is more closely related to height than to DBH and the biomass equations are based only on height. If palms are present in the sample plots, adopt the following steps (Pearson et al. 2005b) Measure the height of the palm from base up to the point where the stem is no longer...

Monte Carlo Simulations

The Monte Carlo method is suitable for forestry and other land-based projects, particularly since it helps to overcome the limitation due to lack of independence between various uncertainty values involved in assessing uncertainty at the project level. A general description of the Monte Carlo method is given in Fishman (1995), and statistical packages are available that include Monte Carlo algorithms. Winiwarter and Rypdal (2001) and Eggleston et al. (1998) provide examples of application of...

Steps in Applying Century V

The information required by the CENTURY model can be considered under two categories, namely Site characteristics data, which is related to the type of land mapping unit or land facet and the type of ecosystem sustained by such land unit Data on variables necessary for the parameterization of the model for the selected ecosystem forest, grassland and agricultural land Data input The following data are required for the model, which are site specific for the region and ecosystem selected Maximum...

Methods for Dead Organic Matter Deadwood and Litter

Dead organic matter consists of deadwood and litter. Stems and branches of dead-wood 10 cm or larger in diameter form the deadwood pool and those smaller than that constitute litter (see Chapter 4 for a definition). Inclusion of dead organic matter pool makes the estimated changes in total carbon stock more accurate. Most of the biomass not harvested or burnt is added to the deadwood, litter and soil carbon pools. The dynamics of dead organic matter vary with the type of forest or plantation as...

Calculation of Biomass Stocks and Changes for Roundwood Production Projects

Roundwood production projects require monitoring and estimation of biomass stocks at different periods and particularly at the end of the rotation. The carbon stocks could be calculated using the Stock-Difference method, as follows RWp total roundwood production (above-ground biomass in tonnes) RWAGB roundwood stock at year t2 (above-ground biomass in tonnes) RWAGB roundwood stock at year t1 (above-ground biomass in tonnes) Commercial industrialwood plantations require estimates only of...

Application of Methods for Estimating Above Ground Biomass

Different methods described for estimating above-ground biomass are being used by different stakeholders. Among all the methods, biomass (including volume) estimation equations are likely to be applied the most. However, the number of species for which such equations are available is limited. In the absence of species-specific biomass equations, generic biomass equations are frequently used. Thus, it may be desirable for project developers and inventory experts to develop region-specific and...

Baseline Scenario for Carbon Mitigation and Land Based Development Projects

The extent of importance of a baseline, methods for estimation, carbon pools to be monitored and frequency of monitoring is different for carbon mitigation and other land-based development projects (Table 6.1). Baseline estimates are Table 6.1 Baseline-related issues for carbon mitigation and other land-based projects Table 6.1 Baseline-related issues for carbon mitigation and other land-based projects - Very critical to estimate the additional or incremental carbon benefit due to project...

Century

Features CENTURY simulates the long-term dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) in different plant-soil systems (http www. nrel.colostate.edu projects century ). The model can simulate the dynamics of grassland, cropland, forest land, and savannah systems. The grassland crop and forest systems have different plant production submodels that are linked to a common SOM (soil organic matter) submodel. The savannah submodel uses the grassland crop and forest subsystems...

Carbon Inventory for Projects Under the Global Environment Facility GEF

Addressing climate change concerns and, to some extent, prevention of land degradation under GEF involves increasing carbon sinks and reducing CO2 emissions. Among a number of operational programmes, the two that are relevant to carbon inventory are operational programme 12 on integrated ecosystem management and operational programme 15 on sustainable land management. Projects under these two programmes are likely to lead to conservation or enhancement of carbon sinks - through reduction or...