Meteorological Conditions

From the analysis of the main meteorological parameters (Tables 3.1 and 3.2), it is evident that the main differences among sites are during the winter period. In TO,

Table 3.1 Main meteorological parameters of the three sites

Year

Temperature (°C)

Rainfall (mm)

ET0 (mm)

Annual

Daily

Daily minimum

Annual

Daily

Annual

Daily

average

maximum

total

maximum

total

maximum

Torino

2006

12.7

35.2 (Jul 22)

-8.9 (Jan 15)

605

122 (Sep 14)

1,102

7.0 (Jun 23)

2007

12.9

34.1 (Jul 19)

-8.4 (Dec 18)

513

44 (May 4)

1,138

7.1 (Jul 16)

2008

12.6

34.7 (Aug 5)

-11.4 (Dec 28)

1,071

62 (Jun 8)

1,072

6.9 (Jun 27)

Napoli

2006

16.7

38.0 (Aug 19)

-2.3 (Jan 26)

932

64 (Nov 12)

1,143

6.9 (Jun 28)

2007

17.2

42.1 (Aug 24)

-1.4 (Dec 15)

726

37 (Nov 14)

1,126

7.4 (Jul 24)

2008

17.1

35.6 (Sep 6)

+0.1 (Mar 16)

853

53 (Mar 6)

1,136

6.9 (Jun 17)

Battipaglia

2007

17.6

42.5 (Aug 24)

+0.0 (Dec 16)

951

49 (Sep 27)

1,164

7.6 (Jul 24)

2008

17.9

37.0 (Jul 13)

-0.5 (Feb 17)

1,028

66 (Mar 6)

1,175

7.4 (May 27)

2009

18.0

39.0 (Aug 21)

+0.5 (Feb 21)

1,324

89 (Jan 3)

1,154

6.8 (Jul 25)

Table 3.2 Water balance (Rain - Reference Evapotranspiration) for the three sites

Year

Torino 2006

2007

2008

Jan-Apr

May-Aug

Annual total

Napoli 2006

2007

2008

103 -1 137

Battipaglia

2007

2008 2009

89 147 478

temperatures are generally lower, with winter negative peaks around —9°C, while winter peaks in Mediterranean sites ranged from —2.3 to +0.5°C. Annual rainfalls are smaller in TO, larger in NA, and much larger in BA. Reference evapotranspiration (Hargreaves and Samani 1985) is not different among the three sites, with total annual values ranging from 1,072 to 1,164 mm. In winter, water balance (annual rainfalls minus total evapotranspiration) is negative in TO and positive in the Mediterranean sites (Table 3.2), while it is negative in summer with a more severe drought in the Mediterranean sites (NA, BA). On a year basis water deficit is severe in TO (—498 mm on average), moderate in NA (—299 mm), and negligible in BA (—63 mm).

The differences among sites are noticeable from the monthly distribution of evapotranspiration and rainfalls. Summer rainfalls are abundant in the Temperate site, while the Mediterranean sites show more abundant winter rainfalls and severe summer droughts.

These differences are due to the origin of rainfalls. In Italy, temperate-humid storms during fall and winter mainly move from Atlantic Ocean. In northern Italy, storms encounter the Alps Mountains. Consequently, a wetter climate prevails on the windward side (French Provence) than on the leeward side as moisture is removed by orographic precipitation. Therefore, in the Western Po Valley (where the Torino site is located) precipitations are little. On the contrary, in southern Italy storms encounter the Apennines Mountains which determine wetter climate in the windward side (Tirrenic coast) where the NA and BA sites are located.

During summer, convective precipitations occur in the Po valley as the warmhumid air masses rise vertically from the very wet Po Plain and encounter colder air, thus condensing and determining intense rainfalls. In southern Italy, drought is more severe in summers. Thus warm air masses are much dryer, determining little summer convective rainfalls.

Table 3.3 Soil properties in the three sites Property Soil depth (cm)

Torino Napoli Battipaglia

Table 3.3 Soil properties in the three sites Property Soil depth (cm)

Torino Napoli Battipaglia

0-15

15-30

30-60

0-15

15-30

30-60

0-15

15-30

30-60

Sand (%)

62.4

63.1

50.8

47.0

46.0

41.5

11.8

13.0

12.8

Silt (%)

30.2

30.0

41.1

20.1

24.5

28.5

57.3

54.3

46.4

Clay (%)

7.4

6.9

8.1

32.9

29.5

30.0

31.0

32.7

40.8

Texture class

SaL

SaL

L

SiCL

SiCL

CL

SiCL

SiCL

SiC

pH

8.1

8.0

8.1

7.4

7.4

7.5

8.2

8.1

7.9

Total carbonate (%)

2.8

2.0

4.3

-

-

-

-

-

-

Organic matter (%)

1.78

1.70

1.22

1.24

1.24

1.11

1.10

1.18

0.68

Organic C (%)

1.04

0.99

0.71

0.72

0.72

0.64

0. 63

0.68

0.39

Nitrogen (%)

0.104

0.104

0.079

0.093

0.090

0.062

0.081

0.068

0.041

C/N ratio

10.0

9.5

9.0

7.74

8.00

10.40

7.75

10.00

9.51

K2O (ppm)

75

61

45

440

420

432

392

401

380

P2O5 (ppm)

35

38

13

31

32

25

49

31

24

Sa sandy, L loam, Si silty, C clay

Sa sandy, L loam, Si silty, C clay

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