Results

Six records from different areas and water depths are available (Tables 2-5). Records from two water depths are available from Site 5 (1,342 and 2,848 m) and from Site 7 (1,482 and 4,588 m). Total flux data for all sites investigated are depicted in Fig. 2. The flux data all refer to the <1mm size fraction, which clearly dominated particle flux, because the > 1 mm size fraction is generally dominated by zooplankton remains. Seasonal fluctuation in sea-water temperature through the 300-m-thick water column was estimated by linear interpolation of World Ocean Atlas 1994 grid data for each site (Figs. 3-6) (Levitus and Boyer, 1994).

3.1 Site 6

The total flux record at Site 6 exhibited one broad maximum, with intermediate values (116 mg m-2 day-1) from January through March (Fig. 2 and Table 2). The mean fluxes and relative contributions of carbonate, OM, biogenic opal, and lithogenics were 30.2 (63.7%), 4.8 (10.1%), 4.2 (8.9%), and

8.2 (17.3%) mg m-2 day-1, respectively, and followed the total flux. Carbonate was the dominant constituent and was composed of coccolithophores and planktonic foraminifera. Percentages of OM were in the range of 7.5-13.2%. The biogenic opal content varied from 4.5 to 12.0%. Lithogenic material, which was mostly clay-sized, ranged from 13.6 to 25.4% of the total mass.

3.2 Sites 5 and 7

The total mass, carbonate, OM, biogenic opal, and lithogenic fluxes at the shallow and deep traps at Sites 5 and 7 exhibited similar seasonality, although the deep traps occasionally exhibited higher fluxes than the shallow traps, indicating that vertical transport of settling particles was predominant in the transition zone (Figs. 2, 4, and 5; Tables 3 and 4). Two flux maxima (in June 1993 and late March 1997) were observed in these four traps. A relatively stratified water structure from July to September 1993 resulted in low biogenic-material production at both sites. The mean fluxes and relative abundance of carbonate, OM, biogenic opal, and lithogenics in the shallow traps were 23.3 (56.7%), 5.2 (12.8%), 3.7 (8.9%), and 8.9 (21.6%) mg m-2 day-1 at Site 5 and 41.4 (43.8%), 11.6 (12.3%), 17.5 (18.5%), and 24.0 (25.4%) mg m-2 day-1 at Site 7, respectively. Coccolithophores and planktonic foraminifera contributed much more than diatoms at both sites.

3.3 Site 8

The highest total-mass fluxes among all the traps deployed along the 175°E transect were measured at the northernmost site, where two peaks were to

Table 2: Sampling dates, flux rates, percentage and various ratios (COrganic, Ccarbonate) of material collected at Site 6

;/N, opal/carbonate and C

organic

Table 2: Sampling dates, flux rates, percentage and various ratios (COrganic, Ccarbonate) of material collected at Site 6

Sample number

Trap cup Open Close

Duration Total

(days)

Carbonate Organic matter

Biogenic Lithogenics opal

Carbonate Organic matter

% of Total Lithogenics Biogenic opal

COrganic/N

atom

Opal/ carbonate (wt./wt.)

COrganic/ C

CCarbonate atom

Site 6

1

16-Jun-93

1-Jul-93

15

29.5

16.8

2.6

2.5

7.5

57.2

8.9

8.6

25.4

8.3

0.15

0.72

2

1-Jul-93

1-Aug-93

31

31.8

19.4

2.4

2.9

7.1

61.1

7.5

9.2

22.3

8.3

0.15

0.56

3

1-Aug-93

1-Sep-93

31

34.7

21.3

3.0

4.2

6.2

61.4

8.6

12.0

18.0

8.9

0.20

0.65

4

1-Sep-93

1-Oct-93

30

24.4

15.0

1.9

2.8

4.6

61.7

7.8

11.6

19.0

8.5

0.19

0.58

5

1-Oct-93

1-Nov-93

31

20.5

13.1

1.6

2.2

3.6

64.0

7.6

10.8

17.6

8.7

0.17

0.55

6

1-Nov-93

1-Dec-93

30

18.9

12.1

1.5

1.7

3.5

64.1

8.2

9.2

18.6

8.7

0.14

0.59

7

1-Dec-93

16-Dec-93

15

26.9

16.7

2.5

2.6

5.1

62.2

9.2

9.8

18.8

8.9

0.16

0.68

8

16-Dec-93

1-Jan-94

16

32.7

19.2

3.1

3.9

6.5

58.9

9.3

11.9

19.8

8.9

0.20

0.73

9

1-Jan-94

16-Jan-94

15

35.9

21.7

3.8

3.9

6.6

60.3

10.5

10.7

18.5

9.0

0.18

0.80

10

16-Jan-94

1-Feb-94

16

84.8

53.0

8.3

7.5

16.0

62.5

9.8

8.8

18.9

9.0

0.14

0.73

11

1-Feb-94

16-Feb-94

15

91.1

58.6

9.0

7.6

16.0

64.2

9.8

8.3

17.6

8.6

0.13

0.71

12

16-Feb-94

1-Mar-94

13

84.1

55.8

8.4

7.3

12.6

66.3

10.0

8.7

15.0

8.6

0.13

0.70

13

1-Mar-94

16-Mar-94

15

88.6

59.7

9.2

7.6

12.0

67.4

10.4

8.6

13.6

8.7

0.13

0.72

14

16-Mar-94

1-Apr-94

16

116.0

80.1

13.5

5.2

17.2

69.1

11.6

4.5

14.8

8.4

0.06

0.78

15

1-Apr-94

16-Apr-94

15

108.0

67.9

14.2

10.0

15.9

62.8

13.2

9.3

14.7

8.7

0.15

0.97

16

16-Apr-94

1-May-94

15

64.9

41.0

7.5

5.7

10.7

63.2

11.6

8.8

16.5

8.6

0.14

0.85

17

1-May-94

16-May-94

15

22.4

13.7

2.8

1.7

4.2

61.4

12.5

7.4

18.7

8.8

0.12

0.94

18

16-May-94 1-Jun-94

16

10.8

Note: All data refer to the o 1 mm size fraction.

Table 3: Sampling dates, flux rates, percentage and various ratios (Corgamc Ccarbonate) of material collected at Site 5

/N, opal/carbonate and C

Organic

Sample number

Trap cup

Open

Duration Total

Close

Carbonate Organic Biogenic Lithogenics matter opal

Carbonate Organic % of Total Lithogenics Corganic/N Opal/ Corganic/ matter Biogenic atom Carbonate CCarbonate opal (wt./wt.) atom

Site 5 shallow

1

16-June-

1-July-9S

1B

140.9

B0.S

19.4

18.9

B2.S

SB.7

1S.8

1S.4

S7.1

8.0

0.S8

1.79

2

1-Jul-9S

1-Aug-9S

S1

S1.4

1S.1

4.2

2.0

12.2

41.7

1S.2

6.4

S8.7

8.B

0.1B

1.47

S

1-Aug-9S

1-Sep-9S

S1

26.9

1B.B

S.S

2.1

6.0

B7.6

12.2

7.9

22.S

8.S

0.14

0.98

4

1-Sep-9S

1-Oct-9S

S0

9.0

B.6

1.0

0.8

1.6

62.0

11.1

9.2

17.7

7.B

0.1B

0.8S

B

1-Oct-9S

1-Nov-9S

S1

6.B

4.9

0.6

0.2

0.7

76.2

10.0

2.7

11.0

7.S

0.04

0.60

6

1-Nov-9S

1-Dec-9S

S0

27.7

17.B

S.7

1.7

4.8

6S.S

1S.4

6.0

17.S

8.4

0.09

0.98

7

1-Dec-9S

16-Dec-9S

1B

42.B

27.B

6.S

2.7

6.0

64.7

14.8

6.4

14.1

8.0

0.10

1.06

8

16-Dec-9S

1-Jan-94

16

40.9

2B.S

B.B

S.B

6.6

62.0

1S.4

8.B

16.1

8.2

0.14

1.00

9

1-Jan-94

16-Jan-94

1B

S0.0

17.4

S.9

2.S

6.4

B8.0

1S.1

7.6

21.S

8.0

0.1S

1.0B

10

16-Jan-94

1-Feb-94

16

S8.B

2S.4

4.2

S.0

7.8

60.9

10.9

7.9

20.2

8.0

0.1S

0.8S

11

1-Feb-94

16-Feb-94

1B

70.2

4S.9

6.8

9.9

9.6

62.B

9.7

14.1

1S.7

8.0

0.2S

0.72

12

16-Feb-94

1-Mar-94

1S

BS.4

SB.8

4.7

S.8

9.1

67.0

8.9

7.2

17.0

7.6

0.11

0.61

1S

1-Mar-94

16-Mar-94

1B

B2.4

S4.7

B.1

6.2

6.4

66.2

9.7

11.8

12.2

7.8

0.18

0.68

14

16-Mar-94

1-Apr-94

16

121.2

76.1

18.S

7.4

19.4

62.8

1B.1

6.1

16.0

7.4

0.10

1.11

1B

1-Apr-94

16-Apr-94

1B

28.9

18.6

4.B

2.S

S.B

64.4

1B.6

7.9

12.1

7.4

0.12

1.12

Deep

1

16-Jun-9S

1-Jul-9S

1B

140.0

B8.0

16.B

19.S

46.S

41.4

11.8

1S.8

SS.1

8.0

0.SS

1.S1

2

1-Jul-9S

1-Aug-9S

S1

92.4

41.9

7.8

1S.S

29.4

4B.S

8.B

14.S

S1.8

7.8

0.S2

0.87

S

1-Aug-9S

1-Sep-9S

S1

B8.6

S0.9

4.6

6.S

16.7

B2.8

7.8

10.8

28.6

8.1

0.20

0.69

4

1-Sep-9S

1-Oct-9S

S0

BS.8

28.6

4.1

B.9

1B.2

BS.2

7.6

11.0

28.2

8.1

0.21

0.66

B

1-Oct-9S

1-Nov-9S

S1

46.B

2B.8

S.9

6.7

10.0

BB.6

8.4

14.B

21.B

8.4

0.26

0.70

6

1-Nov-9S

1-Dec-9S

S0

B1.8

29.7

4.S

4.7

1S.2

B7.2

8.2

9.1

2B.B

8.2

0.16

0.66

7

1-Dec-9S

16-Dec-9S

1B

69.9

40.6

6.6

7.9

14.9

B8.1

9.4

11.S

21.S

8.6

0.19

0.7B

8

16-Dec-9S

1-Jan-94

16

67.0

40.0

B.B

8.9

12.B

B9.7

8.2

1S.S

18.7

8.B

0.22

0.64

9

1-Jun-94

16-Jan-94

1B

44.8

2S.B

4.1

4.4

12.8

B2.4

9.1

9.8

28.7

8.2

0.19

0.80

10

16-Jun-94

1-Feb-94

16

62.8

S7.9

B.2

4.B

1B.2

60.S

8.S

7.2

24.2

8.4

0.12

0.6S

11

1-Feb-94

16-Feb-94

1B

6S.6

S9.B

4.7

6.9

12.B

62.1

7.4

10.9

19.6

8.2

0.18

0.BB

12

16-Feb-94

1-Mar-94

1S

79.2

B1.9

B.B

7.0

14.7

6B.6

7.0

8.9

18.6

8.1

0.14

0.49

1S

1-Mar-94

16-Mar-94

1B

77.8

B0.1

6.0

6.2

1B.6

64.4

7.7

7.9

20.0

8.0

0.12

0.BB

14

16-Mar-94

1-Apr-94

16

1B6.8

100.8

19.B

11.6

24.8

64.S

12.B

7.4

1B.8

7.4

0.11

0.90

1B

1-Apr-94

16-Apr-94

1B

107.0

68.B

12.8

8.S

17.4

64.0

12.0

7.8

16.S

7.6

0.12

0.86

16

16-Apr-94

1-May-94

1B

10B.9

67.1

14.B

6.8

17.B

6S.S

1S.7

6.4

16.B

7.6

0.10

1.00

17

1-May-94

16-May-94

1B

40.S

2B.6

4.1

S.7

6.9

6S.6

10.2

9.1

17.1

6.9

0.14

0.74

18

16-May-94

1-Jun-94

16

1B9.0

6S.6

21.0

29.B

44.9

40.0

1S.2

18.6

28.2

7.9

0.46

1.BS

Note: All data refer to the o 1 mm size fraction.

Table 4: Sampling dates, flux rates, percentage and various ratios (Corganic/N, opal/carbonate and Corganic/ Ccarbonate) of material collected at Site 7

Sample number •

Trap cup

Open

Close

Duration Total

Carbonate Organic Biogenic Lithogenics matter opal

Carbonate Organic matter

% of Total Lithogenics COrganic/N Biogenic atom opal

Opal/ COrganic/

Carbonate CCarbonate (wt./wt) atom

Open

Opal/ COrganic/

Carbonate CCarbonate (wt./wt) atom

Site 7 shallow

1

1-Jun-93

16-Jun-93

15

218.2

76.0

36.4

46.3

59.5

34.8

16.7

21.2

27.3

7.5

0.61

2.22

2

16-Jun-93

1-Jul-93

15

319.6

115.6

41.3

67.2

95.5

36.2

12.9

21.0

29.9

7.6

0.58

1.65

3

1-Jul-93

16-Jul-93

15

147.6

57.9

15.9

31.4

42.3

39.2

10.8

21.3

28.7

7.6

0.54

1.27

4

16-Jul-93

1-Aug-93

16

75.5

32.7

8.4

14.1

20.3

43.2

11.2

18.7

26.9

8.0

0.43

1.19

5

1-Aug-93

16-Aug-93

15

68.7

30.0

7.6

12.9

18.2

43.7

11.0

18.8

26.5

8.4

0.43

1.17

6

16-Aug-93

1-Sep-93

16

100.8

26.7

10.9

28.3

35.0

26.5

10.8

28.0

34.7

7.7

1.06

1.88

7

1-Sep-93

16-Sep-93

15

89.6

25.5

8.3

25.1

30.7

28.5

9.2

28.0

34.3

7.6

0.98

1.50

8

16-Sep-93

1-Oct-93

15

37.2

13.5

3.8

8.8

11.1

36.3

10.2

23.6

29.9

7.5

0.65

1.30

9

1-Oct-93

16-Oct-93

15

45.5

14.9

5.0

11.5

14.2

32.7

11.0

25.2

31.2

7.4

0.77

1.55

10

16-Oct-93

1-Nov-93

16

62.9

24.8

7.8

13.8

16.4

39.4

12.5

22.0

26.1

7.5

0.56

1.46

11

1-Nov-93

16-Nov-93

15

103.3

54.3

12.1

16.8

20.2

52.5

11.7

16.3

19.5

7.9

0.31

1.03

12

16-Nov-93

1-Dec-93

15

61.5

33.0

7.7

9.1

11.7

53.7

12.5

14.9

19.0

7.2

0.28

1.08

13

1-Dec-93

16-Dec-93

15

72.0

41.5

9.3

8.7

12.5

57.7

12.9

12.1

17.4

7.7

0.21

1.04

14

16-Dec-93

1-Jan-94

16

48.7

27.4

6.0

6.2

9.1

56.2

12.2

12.8

18.7

7.6

0.23

1.01

15

1-Jan-4

16-Jan-94

15

17.5

8.9

2.2

2.6

3.7

51.0

12.6

15.0

21.4

7.5

0.29

1.14

16

16-Jan-94

1-Feb-94

16

24.2

10.5

3.4

4.1

6.2

43.4

14.1

17.0

25.5

7.7

0.39

1.50

17

1-Feb-94

16-Feb-94

15

48.9

27.2

4.5

7.0

10.3

55.5

9.1

14.4

21.0

7.3

0.26

0.76

18

16-Feb-94

1-Mar-94

13

56.4

29.9

5.5

8.6

12.3

53.1

9.7

15.3

21.9

7.3

0.29

0.85

19

1-Mar-94

16-Mar-94

15

104.3

63.8

12.8

9.9

17.9

61.2

12.2

9.5

17.1

7.2

0.15

0.93

20

16-Mar-94

1-Apr-94

16

185.2

103.5

22.9

22.0

36.7

55.9

12.4

11.9

19.8

7.4

0.21

1.02

21

1-Apr-94

9-Apr-94

8

99.9

61.2

11.5

10.1

17.1

61.2

11.5

10.1

17.2

7.0

0.16

0.87

Deep

1

1-Jun-93

16-Jun-93

15

71.5

25.0

9.6

15.0

22.0

35.0

13.4

20.9

30.7

7.7

0.60

1.77

2

16-Jun-93

1-Jul-93

15

217.8

81.1

24.1

46.8

65.7

37.2

11.1

21.5

30.2

8.0

0.58

1.37

3

1-Jul-93

16-Jul-93

15

84.4

37.8

6.1

16.2

24.3

44.7

7.3

19.2

28.8

7.7

0.43

0.75

4

16-Jul-93

l-Aug-93

16

54.8

25.4

3.2

9.3

17.0

5

l-Aug-93

16-Aug-93

15

50.2

22.6

3.0

9.3

15.3

6

16-Aug-93

l-Sep-93

16

51.0

22.0

3.1

8.1

17.8

7

l-Sep-93

16-Sep-93

15

51.2

20.4

3.0

10.7

17.1

8

16-Sep-93

l-Oct-93

15

52.9

19.4

3.4

11.4

18.8

9

l-Oct-93

16-Oct-93

15

46.5

17.6

2.7

10.7

15.5

10

16-Oct-93

l-Nov-93

16

66.7

26.4

3.4

15.1

21.8

11

l-Nov-93

16-Nov-93

15

60.9

26.7

3.1

12.4

18.6

12

16-Nov-93

l-Dec-93

15

65.4

25.6

4.5

14.2

21.0

13

l-Dec-93

16-Dec-93

15

71.1

31.8

4.3

14.6

20.4

14

16-Dec-93

l-Jan-94

16

69.8

29.9

4.2

15.2

20.5

15

l-Jan-94

16-Jan-94

15

51.8

20.9

3.2

11.0

16.8

16

16-Jan-94

l-Feb-94

16

28.3

11.5

1.9

5.7

9.3

17

l-Feb-94

16-Feb-94

15

51.7

19.6

3.5

10.9

17.7

18

16-Feb-94

l-Mar-94

13

51.6

20.5

3.4

10.4

17.3

19

l-Mar-94

16-Mar-94

15

84.6

36.4

5.9

15.7

26.5

20

16-Mar-94

l-Apr-94

16

138.8

72.1

13.2

20.3

33.1

21

l-Apr-94

9-Apr-94

8

82.2

45.7

7.6

11.3

17.6

Note: All data refer to the < 1 mm size fraction.

46.3

5.8

16.9

31.0

7.8

0.37

0.58

45.0

6.0

18.6

30.4

7.9

0.41

0.62

43.1

6.1

15.9

34.9

7.7

0.37

0.65

39.8

5.9

20.8

33.5

7.8

0.52

0.68

36.6

6.4

21.5

35.6

7.7

0.59

0.81

37.8

5.7

23.0

33.5

7.6

0.61

0.70

39.6

5.1

22.6

32.6

7.6

0.57

0.60

43.9

5.1

20.4

30.6

7.6

0.46

0.54

39.2

6.9

21.7

32.2

7.9

0.55

0.82

44.7

6.0

20.5

28.8

7.6

0.46

0.62

42.8

6.1

21.8

29.4

7.7

0.51

0.66

40.2

6.2

21.2

32.4

7.6

0.53

0.71

40.7

6.6

20.0

32.8

7.9

0.49

0.75

37.9

6.7

21.1

34.3

7.8

0.56

0.82

39.7

6.7

20.1

33.5

7.7

0.51

0.78

43.1

7.0

18.6

31.4

7.7

0.43

0.75

52.0

9.5

14.6

23.9

7.5

0.28

0.85

55.6

9.2

13.8

21.5

7.5

0.25

0.77

TO 03

S"

o en

Table 5: Sampling dates, flux rates, percentage and various ratios (COrganic/N, opal/carbonate and COrganic/ CCarbonate) of material collected at Site 8

Sample number

(days)

Total

Carbonate Organic matter

Biogenic Lithogenics opal

Carbonate

Organic matter

% of Total Biogenic opal

Lithogenics COrganic/N atom

Opal/ Carbonate (wt./wt.)

COrganic/ C Carbonate atom

Site 8

1

16-Jun-93

1-Jul-93

15

79.0

26.9

7.0

40.1

4.9

34.1

8.9

50.8

6.3

7.3

1.49

1.21

2

1-Jul-93

1-Aug-93

31

363.6

38.5

37.3

255.6

32.2

10.6

10.3

70.3

8.8

8.4

6.64

4.48

3

1-Aug-93

1-Sep-93

31

325.2

50.1

26.0

220.9

28.2

15.4

8.0

67.9

8.7

7.4

4.41

2.40

4

1-Sep-93

1-Oct-93

30

273.9

47.7

17.5

198.6

10.1

17.4

6.4

72.5

3.7

7.3

4.16

1.70

5

1-Oct-93

1-Nov-93

31

321.8

56.3

18.2

236.3

11.0

17.5

5.7

73.4

3.4

7.2

4.20

1.49

6

1-Nov-93

1-Dec-93

30

294.1

90.4

17.6

178.5

7.6

30.7

6.0

60.7

2.6

7.3

1.97

0.90

7

1-Dec-93

16-Dec-93

15

219.1

58.1

11.4

139.6

10.0

26.5

5.2

63.7

4.6

7.5

2.40

0.91

8

16-Dec-93

1-Jan-94

16

100.5

25.0

5.6

66.2

3.8

24.8

5.6

65.9

3.7

7.1

2.65

1.04

9

1-Jan-94

16-Jan-94

15

64.7

13.7

5.1

44.7

1.1

21.2

8.0

69.1

1.7

6.9

3.27

1.74

10

16-Jan-94

1-Feb-94

16

45.1

9.3

3.2

30.9

1.8

20.5

7.0

68.4

4.1

7.1

3.34

1.58

11

1-Feb-94

16-Feb-94

15

51.2

9.5

4.3

34.9

2.6

18.5

8.3

68.1

5.1

6.6

3.68

2.08

12

16-Feb-94

1-Mar-94

13

59.3

8.9

3.6

44.5

2.2

15.1

6.0

75.2

3.7

7.1

4.98

1.84

13

1-Mar-94

16-Mar-94

15

105.3

14.2

5.0

80.2

5.9

13.5

4.7

76.2

5.6

7.1

5.64

1.62

14

16-Mar-94

1-Apr-94

16

62.6

12.5

3.6

43.2

3.4

19.9

5.8

69.0

5.4

6.3

3.46

1.34

15

1-Apr-94

16-Apr-94

15

191.8

25.3

7.7

151.3

7.6

13.2

4.0

78.9

3.9

6.4

5.99

1.42

Note: All data refer to the < 1 mm size fraction. o a a w a h a o

175 E

400 300 200 100

'93 IJIJIAISIOINIDI JIFIMIAIMI '94

1,48201

TfMIlT^

JIAISIOND JFM

300 200 100

4,588 m

1,342 m

TFwZrrTTHHlTrk"

300 200 100 0

400 300 200 - 100

E ro

'93IJIJIAISIOINIDI JIFIMIAMI '94

27848 m;

JIJIAISIOND JIFIMIAIM

300 200 100 0

400 300 200 100 0

Figure 2: Total mass fluxes (mg m 2 day 1) at Sites 5, 6, 7, and 8 in the central North Pacific Ocean.

identified (one large distinct peak in July to December 1993 and a smaller peak in April 1994; see Fig. 2 and Table 5). Total fluxes varied between 45.2 and 363.6 mg m-2 day-1 with a mean value of 207.7 mg m-2 day-1. The carbonate flux pattern followed that of total flux, whereas the biogenic opal, OM, and lithogenic fluxes peaked in July 1993 and decreased thereafter (Fig. 6). Settling particles at Site 8 were characterized by a high flux of

K 100"

200250 -300

K 100"

200250 -300

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

eg 7

J3 E

0 50

m 20

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