Notes

1. Equation (2) is similar to the "Kaya identity" (Nakicenovic, Chapter 11, this volume): FPos = Px (G/P) X (ElG) X (FPmsIE). To focus on mitigation, we break (F^JE) into the factors f and i defined above. Both equation (2) and the Kaya identity are examples of the "IPAT" model (Impact = Population X Affluence X Technology), where g = G/P is affluence.

2. Primary energy Ep^ is the total power generated by humankind, inclusive of waste heat in generation and transmission. It is conventionally called an "energy" although it is actually a power (energy per unit time) with units exajoules per year (EJ y-1) or terawatt (TW) (1 EJ = 1018J; 1 TW = 1012W = 31.536 EJ y-1).

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