Literature Cited

Archard, F., H. D. Eva, H. Stibig, P. Mayaux, J. Gallego, R. Richards, and J. Malingreau. 2002. Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forest. Science 297:999-1002.

Broecker, W. S. 1987. Unpleasant surprises in the greenhouse. Nature 328:123-126.

Broecker, W. S., D. M. Peteet, and D. Rind. 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature 315:21-25.

Caspersen, J. P, S. W. Pacala, J. C. Jenkins, G. C. Hurtt, P. R. Moorcroft, and R. A. Bird-sey. 2000. Contributions of land-use history to carbon accumulation in U.S. forests. Science 290:1148-1151.

Clark, P. U., N. G. Pisias, T. F. Stocker, and A. J. Weaver. 2002. The role of the thermohaline circulation in abrupt climate change. Nature 415:863-869.

Cowling, S. A., and C. B. Field. 2003. Environmental control of leaf area production: Implication for vegetation and land-surface modeling. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 17, doi:10.1029/2002GB001915.

Cox, P. M., R. A. Betts, C. D. Jones, S. A. Spall, and I. J. Totterdell. 2000. Will carbon-cycle feedbacks accelerate global warming in the 21st century? Nature 408:184-187.

Cramer, W., A. Bondeau, F. I. Woodward, I. C. Prentice, R. A. Betts, V. Brovkin, P M. Cox, V. Fisher, J. A. Foley, A. D. Friend, C. Kucharik, M. R. Lomas, N. Ramankutty, S. Sitch, B. Smith, A. White, and C. Young-Molling. 2001. Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: Results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology 7:357-373.

Cubasch, U., G. A. Meehl, G. J. Boer, R. J. Stouffer, M. Dix, A. Noda, C. A. Senior, S. Raper, and K. S. Yap. 2001. Projections of future climate change. Pp. 525-582 in Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. (Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), edited by J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dai, A., and I. Y. Fung. 1993. Can climate variability contribute to the "missing" CO2 sink? Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7:599-609.

DeFries, R. S., R. A. Houghton, M. C. Hansen, C. B. Field, D. Skole, and J. Townshend. 2002. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation and regrowth based on satellite observations for the 1980s and 90s. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:14256-14261.

De Lucia, E. H., J. G. Hamilton, S. L. Naidu, R. B. Thomas, J. A. Andrews, A. Finzi, M. Lavine, R. Matamala, J. E. Mohan, G. R. Hedrey, and W. H. Schlesinger. 1999. Net primary production of a forest ecosystem with experimental CO2 enrichment. Nature 284:1177-1179.

Fearnside, P. M. 2000. Global warming and tropical land-use change: Greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning, decomposition and soils in forest conversion, shifting cultivation and secondary vegetation. Climatic Change 46:115 —158.

Friedlingstein, P, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, J.-L. Dufresne, L. Fairhead, H. LeTreut, P Monfray, and J. Orr. 2000. Positive feedback of the carbon cycle on future climate change. Note du Pole deModélisation (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) 19:1 — 15.

Giardina, C. P., and M. G. Ryan. 2000. Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature 404:858-861.

Gitz, V., and P. Ciais. 2003. Amplifying effects of land-use change on future atmospheric CO2 levels. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, doi 10.1029/2002GB001963.

Gooda2le, C. L., M. J. Apps, R. A. Birdsey, C. B. Field, L. S. Heath, R. A. Houghton, J. C. Jenkins, G. H. Kohlmaier, W. Kurz, S. Liu, G.-J. Nabuurs, S. Nilsson, and A. Z. Shvidenko. 2002. Forest carbon sinks in the Northern Hemisphere. Ecological Applications 12:891-899.

Hättenschwiler, S., F. Miglietta, A. Raschi, and C. Körner. 1997. Morphological adjustments of mature Quercus ilex trees to elevated CO2. Acta Oecologica 18:361-365.

Houghton, R. A. 2003. Revised estimates of the annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from changes in land use and land management, 1850-2000. Tellus 55B: 378-390.

Houghton, J. T., Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson, eds. 2001. Climate change 2001: The scientific basis (Contribution ofWorking Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Houghton, J. T., L. G. M. Filho, J. Bruce, H. Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell, eds. 1995. Climate change 1994: Radiative forcing of climate change and an evaluation of the IPCC IS92 emissions scenarios. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Houghton, R. A., F. Joos, and G. P Asner. 2003. The effects of land use and management on the global carbon cycle. In Land change science: Observing, monitoring, and understanding trajectories of change on the Earth's surface, edited by G. Gutman. Kluwer, submitted, 2003.

House, J. I., N. Ramankutty, I. C. Prentice, M. Heimann, and R. A. Houghton. 2003. Reducing uncertainties in the global terrestrial CO2 sink. Tellus 55B:345-363.

Hurtt, G. C., S. W. Pacala, P. R. Moorcroft, J. Caspersen, E. Shevliakova, R. A. Houghton, and B. Moore. 2002. Projecting the future of the U.S. carbon sink. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States 99 (3): 1389-1394.

Joos, F., G.-K. Plattner, T. F. Stocker, O. Marchal, and A. Schmittner. 1999. Global warming and marine carbon cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2. Science 284:464-467. 2

Joos, F., I. C. Prentice, S. Sitch, R. Meyer, G. Hooss, G.-K. Plattner, S. Gerber, and K. Hasselmann. 2001. Global warming feedbacks on terrestrial carbon uptake under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios. Global Biogeo-chemical Cycles 15:891-907.

Joos, F., I. C. Prentice, and J. I. House. 2002. Growth enhancement due to global atmospheric change as predicted by terrestrial ecosystem models: Consistent with U.S. forest inventory data. Global Change Biology 8:299-303.

Knutti, R., and T. F. Stocker. 2002. Limited predictability of the future thermohaline circulation close to an instability threshold. Journal of Climate 15:179—186.

Leemans, R., B. Eickhout, B. Strengers, L. Bouwman, and M. Schaeffer. 2002. The consequences for the terrestrial carbon cycle of uncertainties in land use, climate and vegetation responses in the IPCC SRES scenarios. Science in China 45:126.

Luo, Y. Q., J. Reynolds, and Y. P. Wang. 1999. A search for predictive understanding of plant responses to elevated CO2. Global Change Biology 5:143 — 156.

Maier-Reimer, E., U. Mikolajewicz, and A. Winguth. 1996. Future ocean uptake of CO2: Interaction between ocean circulation and biology. Climate Dynamics 12:711—721.

Manabe, S., and R. J. Stouffer. 1993. Century-scale effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the ocean-atmosphere system. Nature 364:215—218.

Matear, R. J., and A. C. Hirst. 1999. Climate change feedback on the future oceanic CO2 uptake. Tellus 51B (3): 722-733.

McGuire, A. D., S. Sitch, J. S. Clein, R. Dargaville, G. Esser, J. Foley, M. Heimann, F. Joos, J. Kaplan, D.W. Kicklighter, R. A. Meier, J. M. Melillo, B. Moore III, I. C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, T. Reichenau, A. Schloss, H. Tian, L. J. Williams, and U. Wittenberg. 2001. Carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the twentieth century: Analyses of CO2, climate and land-use effects with four process-based ecosystem models. GlobalBiogeochemical Cycles 15:183-206.

Metz, B., O. Davidson, R. Swart, and J. Pan, eds. 2001. Climate change 2001: Mitigation (The Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nakicenovic, N., J. Alcamo, G. Davis, B. de Vries, J. Fenhann, S. Gaffin, K. Gregory, A. Grubler, T. Y. Jung, T. Kram, E. L. La Rovere, L. Michaelis, S. Mori, T. Morita, W. Pepper, H. Pitcher, L. Price, K. Raihi, A. Roehrl, H.-H. Rogner, A. Sankovski, M. Schlesinger, P. Shukla, S. Smith, R. Swart, S. van Rooijen, N. Victor, and Z. Dadi. 2000. IPCC special report on emissions scenarios. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Oeschger, H., U. Siegenthaler, U. Schotterer, and A. Gugelmann. 1975. A box diffusion model to study the carbon dioxide exchange in nature. Tellus 27:168-192.

Oeschger, H., J. Beer, U. Siegenthaler, B. Stauffer, W. Dansgaard, and C. C. Langway. 1984. Late glacial climate history from ice cores. Pp. 299-306 in Climate processes and climate sensitivity, edited by J. E. Hansen and T. Takahashi. Geophysical Monograph 29. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union.

Pacala, S. W., G. C. Hurtt, D. Baker, P. Peylin, R. A. Houghton, R. A. Birdsey, L. Heath, E. T. Sundquist, R. F. Stallard, P. Ciais, P. Moorcroft, J. P. Caspersen, E. Shevliakova, B. Moore, G. Kohlmaier, E. Holland, M. Gloor, M. E. Harmon, S.-M. Fan, J. L. Sarmiento, C. L. Goodale, D. Schimel, and C. B. Field. 2001. Consistent land- and atmosphere-based U.S. carbon sink estimates. Science 292:2316-2320.

Plattner, G.-K., F. Joos, T. F. Stocker, and O. Marchal. 2001. Feedback mechanisms and sensitivities of ocean carbon uptake under global warming. Tellus 53B:564-592.

Prentice, I. C., G. D. Farquhar, M. J. R. Fasham, M. L. Goulden, M. Heimann, V J. Jaramillo, H. S. Kheshgi, C. Le Quere, R. J. Scholes, and D. W. R. Wallace. 2001. The carbon cycle and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pp. 183-237 in Climate change2001: The scientific basis (Contribution ofWorking Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), edited by J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J.

Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sarmiento, J. L., and C. Le Quere. 1996. Oceanic carbon dioxide uptake in a model of century-scale global warming. Science 274:1346—1350.

Sarmiento, J. L., T. M. C. Hughes, R. J. Stouffer, and S. Manabe. 1998. Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic climate warming. Nature

393:245-249.

Schindler, W. D., and S. E. Bayley. 1993. The biosphere as an increasing sink for atmospheric carbon: Estimates from increased nitrogen deposition. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7:717-733.

Sitch, S., B. Smith, I. C. Prentice, A. Arneth, A. Bondeau, W. Cramer, J. O. Kaplan, S. Levis, W. Lucht, M. T. Sykes, K. Thonicke, and S. Venevsky. 2003. Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9:161-185.

Stocker, T. F., and A. Schmittner. 1997. Influence of CO2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation. Nature 388:862-865.

Stocker, T. F., G. K. C. Clarke, H. LeTreut, R. S. Lindzen, V P. Meleshko, R. K. Mugara, T. N. Palmer, R. T. Pierrehumbert, P. J. Sellers, K. E. Trenberth, and J. Willebrand. 2001. Physical climate processes and feedbacks. Pp. 417-470 in Climate change 2001: The scientific basis (Contribution ofWorking Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), edited by J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, X. Dai, K. Maskell, and C. A. Johnson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Townsend, A. R., B. H. Braswell, E. A. Holland, and J. E. Penner. 1996. Spatial, temporal patterns in terrestrial carbon storage due to the deposition of fossil fuel nitrogen. Ecological Applications 6:806-814.

Trumbore, S. E., O. A. Chadwick, and R. Amundson. 1996. Rapid exchange between soil carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by temperature change. Science 272:393-396.

Wigley, T. M. L., R. Richels, and J. A. Edmonds. 1996. Economic and environmental choices in the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Nature 379: 240-243.

0 0

Post a comment