Implications of Carbon Management Options

A large portfolio of carbon management options is needed to give flexibility in designing a practical pathway for achieving stabilization of atmospheric CO2 (Caldeira et al., Chapter 5, this volume). As already emphasized, all carbon management options bring both positive and negative environmental, economic, and sociocultural impacts, in addition to greenhouse mitigation. In designing carbon management strategies it is necessary to take advantage of beneficial synergies between mitigation and other impacts.

Our discussion of the wider implications of mitigation is intended to supplement the more technically oriented contributions of Caldeira et al. (Chapter 5) and the engineering-oriented review of Hoffert et al. (2002), by providing some analysis of collateral effects. We consider four classes of impact corresponding to the four terms in equation (4): climate change and greenhouse, economic, environmental, and sociocul-tural. The technical options are organized into five categories identifiable with the six mitigation-oriented terms in equation (3): conservation and efficiency (combining the factors e and i into one category), non-fossil-fuel energy sources (factor f ), land-based options including disturbance reduction and biological sequestration (terms FLULUC and FSq ), biological sequestration in oceans (term F^ ), and engineered CO2 disposal (term FDisp). We restrict discussion to options that are currently technically feasible, at least at moderate scales, omitting (for example) nuclear fusion and spaceborne solar power. Also, although the focus is on carbon mitigation toward CO2 stabilization, we include discussion of other greenhouse gases where these are closely related to carbon mitigation options, for example in land use.

The results of our analysis are summarized in Table 6.2, where we have somewhat subjectively estimated the collateral costs and benefits for each strategy in each impact class as minor, moderate, or major.

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