Figure 19.8. Urban social indicators (1998) (UN-Habitat 2001).
Brazil, Chile, and Mexico are examples of a second group of rim or semiperipheral cities. They developed industrial sectors (autos, assembly plants, synthetic fibers, and chemical fertilizers) with a strong transnational presence and exploited peripheral regions. In contrast to the first group, however, they still depend heavily on export of primary commodities as a source of international trade (Romero 2002). During the past two decades, under the influence of neoliberalism, their states promoted economic liberalization. Strongly impelled by international organizations, they weakened their ability to support domestic industries and invest in economic growth, infrastructure, and social security. The result has been recurrent economic and financial crises, increasing segregation, difficulty in financing social and urban infrastructural expenditure, and weakening of institutional settings (Romero 2002, and Figures 19.5, 19.8, and 19.9). High urbanization rates have caused increased segregation and sprawling informal settlements. Urban air pollution is a major problem in rim regions,4 reflecting inadequate vehicle maintenance, poor fuel quality and road conditions, inefficient public transport, and long travel times (Lo 1994; UNEP 2002).
What is the carbon relevance of the differences in the two rim groups? Have they resulted in contrasting patterns of production, energy utilization, and CO2 emissions? Although energy consumption and carbon emissions by rim regions have increased, they are still low compared with core regions (Figures 19.2 and 19.3). The Asian tigers' extended share of international manufacturing and export is linked to increased emissions, a feature of core regions during the first stage of industrialization (the heavy engineering phase). A relatively smaller percentage of carbon emissions by Latin American
_ City product/capita GNP/capita
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