Contents

List of Colorplates, Figures, Tables, Boxes, and Appendixes xi

Foreword xxi

Acknowledgments xxiii

1. The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans,

Climate, and the Natural World 1

Christopher B. Field, Michael R. Raupach, and Reynaldo Victoria

Part I: Crosscutting Issues

2. Current Status and Past Trends of the Global Carbon Cycle 17

Christopher L. Sabine, Martin Heimann, Paulo Artaxo, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Christopher B. Field, Nicolas Gruber, Corinne Le Quere, Ronald G. Prinn, Jeffrey E. Richey, Patricia Romero Lankao, Jayant A. Sathaye, and Riccardo Valentini

3. The Vulnerability of the Carbon Cycle in the 21st Century: An Assessment of Carbon-Climate-Human Interactions 45

Nicolas Gruber, Pierre Friedlingstein, Christopher B. Field, Riccardo Valentini, Martin Heimann, Jeffrey E. Richey, Patricia Romero Lankao, E.-Detlef Schulze, and Chen-Tung Arthur Chen

4. Scenarios, Targets, Gaps, and Costs 77

Jae Edmonds, Fortunat Joos, Nebojsa Nakicenovic, Richard G. Richels, and Jorge L. Sarmiento

5. A Portfolio of Carbon Management Options 103

Ken Caldeira, M. Granger Morgan, Dennis Baldocchi, Peter G. Brewer, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Nebojsa Nakicenovic, and G. Philip Robertson

6. Interactions between CO2 Stabilization Pathways and Requirements for a Sustainable Earth System 131

Michael R. Raupach, Josep G. Canadell, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Philippe Ciais, Maria José Sanz, JingYun Fang, Jerry M. Melillo, Patricia Romero Lankao, Jayant A. Sathaye, E.-Detlef Schulze, Pete Smith, and Jeff Tschirley

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