Carbohydrates Ebooks Catalog

The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet

The 3-week ketogenic diet is tested and proven to be a new diet system that not only will guarantee you are losing weight, but it also gives an assurance of you losing excess body fat in the shortest time of just twenty-one days. After the first week of joining the 3-week ketogenic diet, most people notice some changes in their bodies like joint relief, and their bodies begin to be light and more energy in their bodies.The 3-week ketogenic diet requires food supplements that are readily available locally, and at friendly prices, his makes their product to have a better competitive edge as compared to other products. The 3-week ketogenic diet does not limit any users as anybody can join the program regardless of their age or their ethnicities. A diet program guide is provided by Nick to help all the users and when they follow the guidelines strictly, after three weeks weight loss is achieved. More here...

The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Summary


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Phaeocystis carbohydrates and their characteristics

Carbohydrates in algae and plants are often classified based on methodological discrimination. The structural carbohydrates are not water-soluble, whereas the other types of carbohydrates are water-soluble and typically extracted by hot water. In Phaeocystis five different pools of carbohydrates can be distinguished. Like all algal and plant cells, both solitary and colonial cells produce (1) structural carbohydrates, polysaccha-rides that are mainly part of the cell wall, (2) mono- and oligosaccharides, which are present as intermediates in the synthesis and catabolism of cell components, and (3) intracellular storage glucan. Colonial cells of Phaeocystis excrete (4) mucopolysaccharides, heteropolysaccharides that are the main constituent of the mucous colony matrix and (5) dissolved organic matter (DOM) rich in carbohydrates, which is excreted mainly by colonial cells. A schematic on the procedure to extract the different types of particulate carbohydrates is depicted in Fig. 1. In...

The Conformational Flexibility of Humic Supramolecular Structures

A minimization of conformational energy was conducted using HyperchemT 4.0 software to describe the interactions of humic supramolecular associations with an organic acid. Eleven different molecular structures of compounds identified as components of HS (Stevenson 1994) were grouped together in the simulation to form a supramolecular association. The structures represented molecules such as saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrates, peptides, lignin derivatives, etc., with molecular weights varying from 116 Da for a dihydroxybenzene to 504 Da for a triglucose. The molecular weight sum of the 11 molecules was 3,065 Da.

Water Treatment In General

Molds - One important category of fungi is molds. This group of fungi feeds entirely on organic matter. They decompose carbohydrates such as sugars, starches and fats as well as proteins and other substances. They thrive ideally in water that has a temperature range of approximately 80 degrees to 100 F. The presence of molds is generally a strong indicator of heavy pollution of water. Bacteria - Bacteria are another important class of fungi. Again numerous smaller groupings are possible. Among the higher organisms in this group are the iron, manganese and sulphur bacteria. These higher bacteria gain their energy from the oxidation of simple organic substances. Lower forms of bacteria can be grouped as those that are helpful and those that are harmful to man. Those harmful to man are mainly the disease-producing organisms. Helpful organisms hasten the process of decomposing organic matter and by feeding on waste material they aid in the purifying of water. All bacteria are sensitive to...

Good housekeeping recommendations for specific industries to reduce waste

The dairy sector consists of two segments fluid milk and processed milk products (which originate from fluid milk). The principal processing steps are (1) clarification or filtration (2) blending and mixing (3) pasteurisation and homogenisation (4) process manufacturing (5) packaging and (6) clean-up (US-AEP 1997). This waste consists of off-spec goods, damaged or out-of-date products, cheese solids, curd, whey, and milk sludge from the separation process. Reduce solid waste by dedicating lines to particular products, avoiding product spillage when disconnecting hoses and pipes, provide a foolproof whey collection system to avoid leaks from valves and fittings, provide whey storage tanks of twice the maximum daily volume to avoid tank overflow, and prevent sludge from entering the wastewater stream. Reuse or recycle waste generated by collecting spilled solids for reprocessing or animal feed, developing markets for whey solids, creating processes to extract and produce proteins and...

Consideration on the Structural Models

Contrary to the multilayer model, anaerobic granules with non-layered structure were also reported (Grotenhuis et al., 1991 Fang et al., 1995 Wu et al., 2001). There was evidence that a layered and non-layered microstructure of the UASB granules may be developed with carbohydrates and substrates having a rate-limiting hydrolytic or fermentative step (e.g. proteins), respectively (Fang et al., 1995 Fang, 2000). This is probably due to different initial steps in the carbohydrate and protein degradation. The initial carbohydrate degradation to small molecules is faster than its subsequent degradation of the intermediates, whereas the initial step in the protein degradation is a rate-limiting step. Results from fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that protein-fed granules possesses non-layered structure with a random distribution of Methanosaeta concilii (Rocheleau et al., 1999). However, different types of granules may also form on...

Effects of [CO2 and temperature on respiration

Dark respiration is a major component of plant productivity. Approximately 50 of total assimilates acquired by photosynthesis are respired (Amthor, 1997). An unexpected feature of respiration to GEC is an apparent decrease in its rate when expressed per unit of dry matter. Such a decrease is often observed in plants grown in elevated CO2 (Poorter et at., 1992). Part, or all, of this decreased respiration is probably due to the decreased proportion of metabolic components per unit dry matter as carbohydrates accumulate (Drake et at., 1997). However, this cannot explain why elevated CO2 also

Solar Radiation And Crop Plants

The third spectrum, lying between the ultraviolet and infrared, is the visible part of solar radiation and is referred as light. This segment of solar radiation plays an important part in plant growth and development through the processes of chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis and through photosensitive regulatory mechanisms such as phototropism and photoperiodic activity. Light of the correct intensity, quality, and duration is essential for normal plant development. Poor light availability is frequently responsible for plant abnormalities and disorders. Virtually all plant parts are directly or indirectly influenced by this part of the spectrum. It affects the production of tillers the stability, strength, and length of the culms the yield and total weight of plant structures and the size of leaves and root development (Rodriguez et al., 1999). The length of day or the duration of the light period determines flowering and has a profound effect on the content of soluble...

Altered gaseous environments

Harvested plant commodities are composed of water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals and molecules that contribute to flavor and aroma. Changes inevitably take place in the proportion of these constituents after harvest and thereby affect the quality and utility of the stored product. Water not only composes over 80 of most commodities, which contributes to the bulk of the tissue, but its relative distribution within the tissue can cause changes in turgor that alter both texture and enzyme activity. Loss of water therefore can alter not only the size and appearance of the commodity (i.e. weight loss, skin shrivel), but also its texture (i.e. crisp versus flaccid) and its physiological activity. Carbohydrates are constantly being metabolized by the commodity to supply energy (i.e. respiration) and smaller molecules for the synthesis of other macromolecules (e.g. proteins, lipids, hormones, etc.). Most commodities have sufficient carbohydrate reserves that their loss...

Mortality Caused by Pathogens

The commonly occurring shoestring root rot fungus (Armillaria mellea) has been associated with oak mortality species (Wargo 1977) and has been implicated as the primary causal agent (D. J. Lodge, pers. comm.) in mortality observed in the southeast during the 1980s. Nonetheless, there is considerable speculation about whether primary or secondary causes of mortality can be assigned to a single vector (Wargo 1977). The effectiveness of the fungus in causing or contributing to mortality is related to an individual tree's condition, its degree of stress because of low moisture availability (Staley 1965), defoliation (Wargo 1977), or the presence of stem borers (Agrilus bilineatus Weber Dunbar and Stephens 1975). To more efficiently support respiration and other metabolic processes during prolonged periods of severe moisture stress, carbohydrates stored in the root systems as starch are converted into simple sugars (Wargo 1977 and 1996). The fungus is better able to use simple sugars than...

Interactions of P Concentrations and Plants 621 Influence of Soil P Concentration on Plants

P is crucial for several aspects of plant metabolism, especially the energy and sugar metabolism, and several enzymatic reactions, including photosynthesis. Plants have therefore developed mechanisms for the uptake and efficient use of P. Maize plants recycled N quicker from old to young tissue when P is deficient, leading to earlier leaf senescence (Usuda 1995). P-deficient plants invest more resources into root development and therefore have an increased root-to-shoot biomass ratio compared to well-nourished plants. Furthermore, they accumulate more carbohydrates in leaves and allocate more carbon to the roots (Hermans et al. 2006). Carbohydrates may influence gene expression in plants, thus helping to regulate enzymatic pathways in reaction to mineral deficiencies (Lloyd and Zakhleniuk 2004 Hermans et al. 2006). M ller et al. (2007) found that almost 150 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana were synergistically or antagonistically regulated by P and sugar. In white lupin, addition of...

Theory of Anaerobic Digestion

In the first phase of anaerobic digestion, hydrolysis, complex organisms such as carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are converted to their soluble forms and hydrolyzed further to simple monomers. In the second phase, acidogenesis (also known as fermentation), acid-forming bacteria convert the products formed in the first phase to short-chain organic acids primarily, acetic, propionic, and lactic acids, and hydrogen and carbon dioxide. In the third phase, methanogenesis, methanogens convert the volatile acids to methane and carbon dioxide.

Compounds Formed during Chlorine Bleaching Process

During pulp bleaching, lignin is extensively modified by chlorination (C stage) and dissolved by alkali (E stage) into the bleaching liquor. The E stage is intended for dissolving the fragmented chloro-lignin compounds and removal of noncellulosic carbohydrates. The most important reactions are oxidation and substitution by chlorine, which lead to the formation of chlorinated organic compounds or the AOX (Table 2). Chlorine bleaching liquors exhibit COD values ranging from 900-2000 mg L and 6575 of this is from chlorinated lignin polymers 6 . The types of chlorinated compounds found in the spent bleach liquors and their concentrations depend upon the quantity of residual lignin (Kappa number) in the pulp, nature of lignin, bleaching conditions such as chlorine dosage, pH, temperatures, and pulp consistencies. The spent liquors generated from the conventional pulping and bleaching processes contain approximately 80 of the organically bound chlorine as high-molecularmass material (MW...

The Nature of Urban Surface Films

Interestingly, organics make up only 5-10 (by mass) of the films most of the identified mass is nitrate (-7 ), sulphate (-8 ) and various metals (18 ). Among the organics, fatty acids, alkanes, carbohydrates and aromatics are all observed, as well as trace contaminants such as PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs. Field measurements have determined that, for the most part, the partitioning of such trace gases between the atmosphere and the film is related to the octanol-air partitioning coefficient, Koa, (4) suggesting that it is the organic fraction which controls the deposition of airborne compounds to the film. This property has been exploited by using the urban films as passive samples of ambient air pollutants. (3, 8, 9) From a laboratory perspective, it suggests that proxy films composed of octanol, mixed with other components, might mimic the chemical environment of real urban films.

Cultural and Breeding Strategies for Future Climate

Based on current knowledge, plants need to be selected for a higher harvest index. This may mean selection for greater utilization of carbohydrates that are produced in high quantities under CO2 enrichment (Baker et al., 1989 Allen et al., 1998), more N fixation and storage for later translocation during seed-filling, and selection for greater pod loads.

Biological functions of heavy metals

Life depends on interactions between organic and inorganic components. The organic building blocks of life consist of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids however, many of these organic compounds require inorganic metals to function properly. Metals that have a biological function, such as copper, nickel, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, are deemed essential metals.1 These metals commonly serve as cofactors for proteinaceous enzymes, but they may also be used to stabilize proteins and bacterial cell walls.1-3 Enzymatic function is reliant on a specific three-dimensional structure. A change in a single amino acid may alter the shape of an active site, leading to inactivation of the enzyme. Metal cofactors also act by affecting the folding patterns of enzymes. A positively charged metal ion may have specific interactions with negatively charged amino acids, such as aspartic and glutamic acid residues. The interaction between metal ions and amino acids is sufficient to alter...

Adaptation Mechanisms

The resting cysts of protozoa are protected from adverse environmental effects by a multilayer water- and gas-tight envelope (Ushatinskaya 1990 Gutierrez et al. 2001). Encysted acanthamoebas, for example, are resistant to biocides, chlorination and antibiotics (De Jonckheere and Van de Voorde 1976 Khunkitti et al. 1998 Turner et al. 2000 Lloyd et al. 2001). Little is known about the macromolecular composition of different envelope layers their major components are proteins, glycoproteins and carbohydrates (Tomlinson and Jones 1962 Neff and Neff 1969 Gutierrez et al. 2003 Matsusaka and Hongo 1984 Benitez et al. 1991 Izquierdo et al. 1999).

Conclusions and Future Research Directions

Although photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 does not appear to be prevalent in soybean, most studies show that large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaf blade, petiole and stem tissues of soybean grown under elevated CO2 . Furthermore, most studies also show that the harvest index decreases when plants are grown under elevated CO2 . Future research should be undertaken to utilize available carbohydrates more

Role of organic matter and nutrients

In rice cultivation, as in any other form of agriculture, it is necessary to sustain soil fertility by returning plant nutrients to the soil. Plant residues, green manure from intercrops or the aquatic plant Azolla and its associated N-fixing blue-green alga Anabaena azollae, human faeces and animal manure are the most important forms of organic fertilizers used in rice crops. Since the 'green revolution' in the 1960s introduced new varieties with increased yields and nutrient requirements, these organic amendments have been generally complemented in many regions by mineral forms of fertilizer. A major difference between organic and mineral fertilizers, in the context of methanogenesis, is that organic fertilizers contain, in addition to plant nutrients, energy sources (for example carbohydrates) that stimulate soil microbial activity. The energy content in organic amendments declines rapidly with time during aerobic decomposition. Applied freshly, however, organic materials lead to...

Physiological Ecology And Nichebased Responses

To predict likely responses of insect pest populations to global environmental changes from the anticipated increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere, we examine the interactive effects of temperature and food quality on population processes as a model for developing predictions regarding insect pest responses to changing climates. In addition to effects from overall increases in crop productivity, the C N content of food is predicted in response to increased atmospheric CO2, resulting in leaf material that is generally of lower primary nutritional quality (relative amounts of protein and carbohydrates) to many insect herbivores (Fajer 1989 Fajer et al.,

Principal Component Analysis of NMR Spectra of Humic Substances Extracted from Soil Treatments

For the first and third experimentation years, PCA score plots of HS from TRA were compared with those from MIN and GMAN treatments (Fig. 4.3a). An overall treatment discrimination was given by PC1 between TRA and MIN and between TRA and GMAN. However, no consistent molecular variation was evident in HS composition among treatments for either replicates or experimental years. The loading vectors associated with signals at 110-60 ppm and 45-0 ppm indicate that HS extracted from MIN after the first year were rich in carbohydrates and poor in alkyl components, respectively. At the final year, an opposite distribution of carbohydrates and alkyl-C was revealed by the corresponding loading vectors in the TRA vs. MIN biplots. Moreover, although the principal components, PC1 and PC2, vectors in the score plot indicated a larger incorporation of alkyl compounds (45-0 ppm) for COM-1 and of both phenolic (160-145 ppm) and aromatic components (145-110 ppm) for COM-2. The NMR spectra of HS from...

Improving animal diets

Changing animal diets can also lead to a reduction in N input, leading to lower rates of denitrification. Zebarth et al (1999) constructed a large-scale N budget for an area of approximately 70,000ha heavily used for animal husbandry including the production of feed. They found that through improved manure storage and fertilizer management practices, in combination with an improved animal diet by removing surplus dietary crude protein and balancing protein, carbohydrates and amino acids in the diet leading to a reduction in N in the excreta of between 20 and 25 per cent, the total N input across the region could be reduced by 17 per cent and the N surplus by 24 per cent. Moreover, it was estimated that the improved animal diet would reduce denitrification by 22 per cent compared to the reference scenario. If we apply improved animal diets by assuming a 20 per cent reduction of the N in animal excreta, manure N application to arable land falls from 33.3 to 26.2Tg yr-1 (Table 5.3). This...

Anaerobic Formaldehyde Removal

Methylene glycol, which may polymerize to form a series of polyoxymethylene glycols. These authors suggested that the intermediate compounds come from the anaerobic degradation of the formed polymers. Another possibility is an aldo condensation, which occurs in the presence of weak bases, forming glycolic aldehyde and carbohydrates.

Sourcesink relations and fruit production

Another major difference between trees and non-woody plants is their source-to-sink ratio. A sink is defined as the region of a plant that is a net consumer of carbohydrates a source is defined as the region of a plant that is a net producer of carbohydrates. The canopy, as a whole, is essentially viewed as source tissue therefore, pruning of tree canopies results in a reduced source activity. However, a new and rapidly developing canopy may also be viewed as sink tissue. Whereas photosynthesis in non-woody plants may be reduced by limited sink strength, this is not the case for trees, because they have large C storage capacity in their woody tissues.

AG Heyer Introduction

Plant biotechnology offers a wide array of possibilities for modifying the physiology and metabolism of crop plants, and it will be a key question to the future prosperity of man whether we will be able to exploit these possibilities to optimize plant production with respect to human needs. As biomass production by plants is initially the fixation of energy as carbohydrates, modifying carbohydrate metabolism is one of the main aspects of plant biotechnology.

Carbon and nitrogen allocation

There is evidence that UVR, especially UV-B, affects carbon allocation in aquatic autotrophic organisms. This has important consequences for food web dynamics, as these changes will affect growth and, consequently, the availability of food for other trophic levels, such as bacteria and heterotrophic microorganisms (see Chapters 5 and 15). Changes in lipid, protein, polysaccharide, and fatty acid levels due to UVR have been determined in some phytoplanktonic and MPB organisms 47,161-167 . These studies have especially highlighted the variations in responses, according to the specific sensitivity of the organisms. For example, Buma et al. 168 , working with three marine diatoms, found a significant increase in cell protein content when cells were exposed to low UV-B doses, whereas the opposite occurred at higher doses. Veen et al. 169 , working with a chlorophyte, demonstrated an increase in cell protein levels when cells were exposed to UVR. Skerratt et al. 167 exposed the diatom...

Use in Animal Feeding and Human Consumption

Olive cake is not attractive as an animal feed, in that it contains, on a dry matter basis, fiber (58 ), crude protein (5.5 ), lipids (3.5 ), soluble carbohydrates (20 ), and ash (13 ) (Harb M., 1986). The nutritive value of olive cake is also very low from 4.22 (untreated) to 6.46 (alkali-treated) MJ of metabolizable energy (ME) kg dry matter (DM) (Molina Alcaide E. and Aguilera J.F., 1988 Nefzaoui A., 1991). Hadjipanayiotou M. and Koumas A. (1996) estimated that untreated olive cake worth 3.85 MJ ME Kg DM. This nutritional value is close to that of straw. In particular, the low protein and energy values make it impossible to use dried olive cake directly. Assuming that feed contributes around 70 of the total cost of animal production, the conversion of even a proportion of the available olive cake to a feed suitable for chickens could prove attractive to egg meat producers and olive growers alike (Haddadin M.S. et al., 1999).

Impacts on Forage Quality

Animal production on rangelands, as in other grazing systems, depends on the quality as well as the quantity of forage. Key quality parameters for rangeland forage include fibre content and concentrations of crude protein, non-structural carbohydrates, minerals and secondary toxic compounds. Ruminants require forage with about 7 crude protein (as a percentage of dietary dry matter) for maintenance, 10-14 protein for growth and 15 protein for lactation (Ulyatt et al., 1980). Optimal rumen fermentation also requires a balance between ruminally available protein and energy (Dove, 1996). The rate at which digesta pass through the rumen depends on the fibre content of forage. Increasing fibre content slows passage and reduces animal intake. Increase in non-structural carbohydrates at elevated CO2 (Read et al, 1997). Increase in crude protein with reduced rainfall

Design Considerations

Fire and Explosion Hazards Drying systems exposed to heavy dusting have had problems with fires. The combination of combustible particles, warm temperatures, sufficient oxygen, and high gas velocities make these systems susceptible to fire and explosion. Any material that will burn in air when it is in solid form may explode when in the form of finely divided powder. Biosolids are composed primarily of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and will burn readily in solid form. For an explosion to occur, dust must be present in sufficient explosive concentration, and there must be a source of ignition. In addition, for an explosion to occur, particles must be sufficiently close together so that the heat released from one particle will heat the surrounding particles. An explosive concentration of dust (320 g m3) in the presence of oxygen at a concentration greater than 15 will explode when exposed to a spark at a temperature exceeding 355 C (671 F) (Barrett and Herndon, 2005). Cyclone...

Human settlement in reed beds

The bulrushes or club-rushes (Schoenoplectus lacustris, S. tabernaemontani) together with other closely related species of Scirpus are a particularly notable group of plants as their nutritive value has been recognized not only by man, but also by geese and rodents. Schoenoplectus spp. are a preferred forage source for geese in the marshes of the Dofiana in southern Spain and for muskrats in the swamps of the Mississippi delta. The genus Schoenoplectus is also distinctive for the tolerance of its rhizomes to total anoxia, which appears to be linked to their high carbohydrate content (Crawford, 2003). It is very striking therefore that plants with high levels of anoxia tolerance are sought out in marsh-dwelling animals, presumably because anoxia tolerance is linked to a supply of readily metabolized carbohydrates.

Other Environmental Factors

As described above, when gutless oligochaetes were first discovered it was assumed that they gained their nutrition by uptake of dissolved organic compounds from the environment. At the Bermuda site where I. leukodermatus occurs in high abundances, concentrations of dissolved free amino acids and organic carbon, as well as total carbohydrates were higher than in other Bermudian carbonate sediments (Giere et al. 1982). However, in uptake experiments with radiolabeled substrates, organic carbon was taken up much more slowly than inorganic carbon by I. leukodermatus. In contrast, Liebezeit et al. (1983) argued that dissolved organic carbon may contribute significantly to the nutrition of I. leukodermatus. At the Elba site in the Mediterranean, the worms are most abundant in sediments around sea grass beds, indicating that organic substrates from the sea grasses may play a role in the distribution of these worms. Clearly, well-designed uptake experiments are needed in which net uptake...

Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment

Two distinct stages of acid fermentation and methane formation are involved in anaerobic treatment. The acid fermentation stage is responsible for conversion of complex organic waste (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) to small soluble product (triglycerides, fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, etc.) by extracellular enzymes of a group of heterogeneous and anaerobic bacteria. These small soluble products are further subjected to fermentation, -oxidations, and other metabolic processes that lead to the formation of simple organic compounds such as short-chain (volatile) acids and alcohols. There is no BOD5 or COD reduction since this stage merely converts complex organic molecules to simpler molecules, which still exert an oxygen demand. In the second stage

Impact Of Climate Change On Crops

The effects of a temperature increase on photosynthetic productivity of crop plants will interact with the current rise in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. Under elevated CO2, the extra carbohydrates produced by increases in photosynthesis result in an increase in grain yield (Horie et al., 1996). Many researchers (Kimball et al., 1995 Samarakoon and Gifford, 1995 Horie et al., 1996 Pinter, 1996 Semenov, Kounina, and Koukhta, 1999) are of the opinion that the actual impact of elevated CO2 on crop growth, and especially on yields, is likely to be significantly less than the estimates that are currently presented. It is suspected that a portion of the increase in grain yield driven by anthropogenic enrichment of the atmosphere may be suppressed by ozone.

Chemicals and biofuels production

Biotechnology, in particular the fermentation sector, has become more and more attractive in recent years for the production of chemicals and biofuels from organic wastes (Willke and Vorlop, 2004). In fact, there are numerous possibilities for replacing chemical techniques with biotechnological methods based on renewable resources. The most important biogenic sources of raw materials for industrial chemicals are oil plants (oil, fat, glycerol, celluloses) starch plants (starch, inulin, carbohydrates, celluloses) sugar beets and sugar cane (sucrose) wood (ligno-cellulose, cellulose) and waste and residues from agriculture and industry (biomass, fats, oils, whey, glycerol). The food industry is probably the main source for these materials.

Weather Natural Disasters and Agriculture

Agriculture is one of the most weather dependent industries. It is the world's single largest employer and one of the main sources of export earnings, thereby significant from foreign exchange point of view (Sivakumar et al. 2004). Weather is defined as the day-to-day condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and given instant of time, whereas, climate is the summation of weather conditions over a given region during a comparatively longer period. tte knowledge of weather is essential in the daily management of crops and animals, and the science of climate aids in the selection of crops and animals. Of all the weather elements, solar radiation controls organic life by heating the earth and atmosphere and also provides the energy required in photosynthesis for the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into primary source of food (carbohydrates). Air temperature influences rates of biochemical reactions in crops (approximately double with each 10 C rise in temperature), leaf...

Early Agriculture And Civilization

By 9,500 years ago, goats, sheep, pigs, and cattle had all been domesticated (table 7.1), as well as dogs to guard villages, scavenge debris, provide bedtime warmth, and, on occasion, be a source of food. The milk, cheese, and meat from domesticated animals were major sources of protein and fat to supplement carbohydrates and protein from grains. Nutritionally, the Fertile Crescent provided everything necessary for humans to adapt a new kind of life based entirely on agriculture.

Upgrading of the monooligomeric components

Radical oxygen species (such as superoxide O2-, hydroxyl (OH), peroxyl (LOO), alkoxyl (LO), nitric oxide (NO)) and some strong oxidants (such as hypochlorous acid HOCl, hydrogen peroxide H2O2) can interact with a number of biomolecules (DNA, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins) causing some transient or irreversible damage which has been associated with serious diseases such as cancer or artherosclerosis.

Microbiology of anaerobic biohydrogen production

Anaerobic hydrogen production can be divided into two main categories one uses photosynthetic bacteria cultured under anaerobic or semi-anaerobic conditions in light and the other uses anaerobic bacteria that produce hydrogen via fermentation metabolism in dark conditions (Benemann, 1996). Hydrogen production by the dark fermentation process is much simpler than the photo-biological process, and the fermentation process generates hydrogen from a large number of carbohydrates frequently obtained as refuse or waste products (Nandi and Sengupta, 1998).

Coproduct recovery in vegetable oil processing

As stated before, vegetable wastewater can be considered as an important source of valuable products, i.e. carbohydrates, phenols, lecithin, vitamin E, sterols and proteins. Visioli et al. (1999), in view of the need for upgrading by-products at all stages of the olive oil industry, investigated different procedures for the recovery of the active components of OMWW and compared the antioxidant and biological activities of various extracts. Glucose is the main soluble sugar present in olive pulp together with smaller quantities of sucrose and fructose and a significant amount of the polyol called mannitol. The insoluble polysaccharides in the cell wall of olive fruit are composed of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. The hemicelluloses are mainly rich in acid xylan and xyloglucan. Therefore, this by-product may be utilized as a chemical feedstock for the production of fermentable sugar as a source of mannitol. Furthermore, due to cleavage of the hemicel-lulose by the steam treatment,...

Geoengineering Strategy Increasing the Emissivity of the Atmosphere by Direct GHG Capture

Co2 Flux Ocean Atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is readily removed from the atmosphere by natural chemical and biological processes. For example, naturally occurring alkaline minerals react with CO2 when exposed to the atmosphere to form carbonate compounds. Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants synthesize carbohydrates, is the natural route of biological CO2 sequestration. These processes seem suitably inexpensive and to have fewer negative environmental side effects than those involving the reduction of solar insolation. Nevertheless, CO2 exists at parts-per-million concentrations in the atmosphere, implying the need for very large scale processing of the atmosphere to ensure a meaningful reduction in its atmospheric concentrations.

Protein Crop Options And Climate Change

To study the non-protein fraction, information is needed on the constituents of any crop that could potentially be used for its protein. Of the main commercial food crops the main constituents other than protein are carbohydrates (starch and - to a lesser extent - sugars) and oil or fat. If we widen the scope to more unusual sources of plant protein there may be a need to include a cellulose lignin fraction. In Europe, crop options might include lupin, pea, quinoa, triticale, lucerne, grasses, rapeseed canola and potato (Linnemann and Dijkstra, 2002). Outside Europe, at least soy should be added. Carbohydrates A possible tool for assessing uses that are available for the non-protein fractions would be a kind of scorecard. An example for such a scorecard is given in Table 10.3 for an imaginary crop X, with 25 protein, 25 carbohydrates, 25 oil fat and 25 cellulose lignin. Please note that, although the scorecard is given here as a 2-dimensional table, a multidimensional,...

Ecological Interactions

There are many kinds of ecological interactions, some of which have been noted above. Trophic, or energy flow, interactions start with primary production. Primary production comes about through the capture of the sun's energy by plant photosynthesis, which manufactures high-energy molecules such as sugars, starches, and oils from carbon dioxide and water. These same plants also capture chemicals other than carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, notably nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and various mineral elements by uptake from the soil. Compounds containing these elements, and the chemical energy stored by the plants as carbohydrates, are consumed by herbivores, saprophages (organisms feeding on already dead material), or carnivores. Thus, material and energy

Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Crops

Carbon dioxide enrichment affects plant structure (Pritchard et al. 1999), transiently enhances the relative growth rate (RGR) of plants (Lambers et al. 1998) and increases biomass and yield (Kimball 1983). It alters the timing of developmental stages of plants (Bowes 1993), but accelerates growth and as a result, induces earlier leaf senescence (Heineke et al. 1999). Growing plants at elevated CO2 concentration leads to increased leaf area, leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration and leaf thickness as indicated by decreased specific leaf area (SLA) (Bowes 1993 Bray and Reid 2002), which is partly related to the accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (Lambers et al. 1998). Elevated CO2 affects growth through changes in chemical composition of plants, as shown in twenty-seven C3 species, including nine crops (Poorter et al. 1997). They reported that elevated CO2 caused an accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates, decreased organic nitrogen compounds and minerals and...

Microbial degradation

Dom Microbial Degradation

Microbial degradation of Phaeocystis carbohydrates During the growth phase of a bloom of P. antarctica all DOM produced was found to be rapidly degraded by bacteria (Smith et al. 1998). With time, however, the composition and contribution of organic matter that can be utilized by bacteria will change from readily degradable freshly excreted DOM during the growth phase, to the DOM dominated by mucopolysaccharides and glucan during the senescent stage. In laboratory experiments it was shown that carbohydrates derived from P. globosa and P. pouchetii colonies were readily degraded by bacterial communities under both oxic and anoxic conditions (Osinga et al. 1997 Janse et al. 1999). The degradation rate of glucan was higher than that of mucopoly-saccharides (Osinga et al. 1997), but during degradation of the mucopolysaccharides the sugar composition of the mucopolysaccharides remained unchanged. Therefore, there is no indication of refractory parts within the mucopolysaccharide fraction...

Anaerobic Digestion as an Alternative Way of Recycling Biowaste

Chynoweth and Isaacson (1987) describe the process of anaerobic digestion as follows The process begins with the separation of household waste into biodegradable and nonbiodegradable waste. The biodegradable material is shredded, slurried, and then screened and pasteurized to start the process of killing harmful pathogens. It is then pumped into the digester where bacteria break down the material and form biogas, leaving a digestate. The three main process stages in anaerobic digestion are hydrolysis, acidogenesis, and methanogenesis. Hydrolysis Insoluble organic polymers such as carbohydrates, cellulose, proteins, and fats are broken down and liquefied by enzymes produced by hydrolytic bacteria. Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids are hydrolyzed to sugars which then decompose further to form carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. Proteins decompose to form ammonia, carboxylic acids, and carbon dioxide. During this phase gas concentrations may rise to levels of 80...

Effective implementation of measures to minimise waste

A number of processing options are available to vegetable, fruit, and meat processors. Solids can be de-watered to a moisture content of less than 10 and used for animal feed. Fermentation can add value to solid waste by creating fermented food or compost. Food wastes abounding with carbohydrates can be converted to sugars by a process called enzymatic hydrolysis. Solid wastes can also be directly converted to biodiesel fuel or converted to methane by anaerobic digestion.

The structural range of plant secondary metabolites

Secondary metabolic pathways are inter-related with the pathways of primary metabolism as shown in Fig. 2.1. These pathways, either singly or in combination, give rise to the major classes of secondary metabolites, that is the terpenoids (isoprenoids), the phenolics (including flavonoids, tannins and quinones), nitrogen compounds (particularly the alkaloids), and fatty acids and their derivatives, such as the polyacetylenes. In addition, there are other significant groups, such as the heterogeneous cyanogenic compounds and glucosinolates, some polyketides, and a range of polymeric material, such as structural carbohydrates, lignans, etc. It would appear that the groups that have evolved as secondary compounds have done so because of the availability of precursors and because of their chemical reactivity which has allowed them to be modified into many different shapes (stereoisomeric configurations) which in turn affect their biological properties. As an example, the compound geraniol,...

Mechanisms of DOM release during a Phaeocystis bloom

During the stationary phase of a bloom, however, DOM release increases. During the stationary phase colonies become disrupted, and flagellate cells develop within the colonies (Pe-perzak et al. 2000). Due to the overflow production of mucopolysaccharides and glucan, the ratio of carbohydrates-C to POC increases. During this phase of a bloom DOM production through non-physiological processes will be high. Cell lysis rates of up to 33 day-1 were observed at the peak of P. globosa blooms (Van Boekel et al. 1992 Brussaard et al. 1995, 1996, 2005a). In this way the carbohydrate rich cell content is released as DOM. When the flagellate cells that develop inside colonies detach from the colony matrix, they are readily grazed upon by microzooplankton (Weisse and Scheffel-Moser 1990 Tang et al. 2001). This leads to DOM release by egestion of the microzooplankton. During the stationary phase of a bloom, bacterial communities attach to Phaeocystis colonies and to ghost colonies. Bacteria with...

Methane emissions from enteric fermentation

Methane is produced in herbivores as a by-product of enteric fermentation, a digestive process by which carbohydrates are broken down by micro-organisms into simple molecules for absorption into the bloodstream. The amount of methane that is released depends on the type of digestive tract, age, and weight of the animal, and the quality and quantity of the feed consumed. Ruminant livestock (e.g., cattle, sheep) are major sources of methane with moderate amounts produced from non-ruminant livestock (e.g., pigs, horses). The ruminant gut structure fosters extensive enteric fermentation of their diet.

Tracer Experimental Approaches

The kinetics and timing of rhizodeposition are largely unknown. Melnitchouck et al. (2005) used a pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometer tool to show that day and night rhizodeposits of C, N, and S concentrations were 3-9.7 times larger than samples from non-cropped soil. They concluded that the diurnal dynamics in the molecular-chemical composition between day- and night-rhizodeposits resulted from the exudation of carbohydrates and amino acids during the photosynthetic period, the deposition of other root-derived compounds such as lipids, suberin, and fatty acids, and microbial metabolism of all available organic compounds in the rhizosphere.

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Tally different from that of bacterial and eukaryotic cells. In the latter two groups, their membranes consist of two layers of lipid, with associated proteins and carbohydrates. In the archaea, the lipid component of the membrane consists of a single layer (Figure 4.4). A lipid mono-layer is less likely to split apart than is a bilayer and hence is more heat stable. This membrane stability contributes to the ability of hyperther-mophilic archaea to survive higher temperatures than do thermophilic eubacteria or eukaryotes. As well as their membranes having a different structure, the lipids of archaeal membranes also have a different chemical composition from those of bacterial and eukaryotic cells. The lipids of thermophilic eubacteria are also different from those of bacteria which grow at more normal temperatures. Their membrane lipids are rich in saturated fatty acids (one of the components of lipids). Saturated fatty acids form stronger bonds between their molecules than do...

Biomass Growth And Substrate Utilization

In the absence of significant soluble microbial product formation, all nonphotosynthetic microbial growth reactions consist of two components, one for synthesis and one for energy. The carbon in the synthesis component ends up in biomass, whereas any carbon associated with the energy component becomes carbon dioxide* Such reactions are also oxidation-reduction reactions and thus involve the transfer of electrons from a donor to an acceptor. For heterotrophic growth the electron donor is an organic substrate, whereas for autotrophic growth the electron donor is inorganic. To allow consideration of all of these factors, McCarty has written three types of half-reactions one for cell material (RL), one for the electron donor (R,,), and one for the electron acceptor (R.,). These are presented in Table 3.2 for a variety of substances. Reactions 1 and 2 represent R, for the formation of biomass. Both are based on the empirical formula C< H-0 N, but one uses ammonia...

To changes in water supply in a changing climate

As soil water availability is reduced, water uptake by roots is reduced (see below) and the water potential of the expanding cells will be reduced. Invariably this will limit growth, with the impact on the growth rate of the shoots greater than that on the growth of the root (see, e.g. Sharp et al., 2004). Growth of other plant parts that contribute to crop yield is differentially sensitive to reduced water potential (Westgate & Boyer, 1985) and it may be that reduced sensitivity of growth of some organs to low water potential is explained by solute accumulation in expanding plant parts (Sharp & Davies, 1979). While solute accumulation in roots seems to sustain some growth at low water potential, albeit at a reduced rate, turgor maintenance in shoots does not always sustain growth, and there can even be an inverse relationship between the extent of solute accumulation in plant cells and growth, as carbohydrates accumulate in plant cells as expansion is limited at low water...

Fruit and vegetable processing or preservation

Cauliflower, artichoke, lettuce, chicory, celery, etc.) are rich in dietary fibre (Femenia et al., 1998), carbohydrates (Rup rez and Toledano, 2003, 2004), antioxidants or prebiotics (Llorach et al., 2003, 2004), but their utilisation is still limited (Larrosa et al., 2002).

Evolution of Polyphenolic Compounds

The consequences of the evolution of lignin to the operation of the carbon cycle have been considerable. Lignin is one of the most refractory organic compounds produced by plants. It resists decay partly because it is insoluble and it has a very high C N ratio. Lignin and lignin-degradation products inhibit the breakdown of complex carbohydrates. Complexes resulting from lignin breakdown can persist for thousands of years in aerobic soils (Robinson, 1990).

Agricultural Solutions To Climate Change

Because the sugars are bound up in long starch molecules. These carbohydrates must be broken down in order to free up the sugars to be converted into alcohol. Therefore, researchers in the United States are working hard to discover ways to lower the costs of producing corn-based ethanol.

Conclusion and future trends

The wastes from fruit and vegetable processing mostly remain underex-ploited although there is a potential for bulk-scale accessible carbohydrates and phenolics. Extraction of valuable polysaccharides such as pectins, cellulose and arabinans, production of monomeric components (sugars, phe-nolics) and processing of dietary fibre, are up until now the main ways to upgrade these residues. New regulations, which will appear in the near future to protect our environment, as well as economic reasons for adding value to these wastes will stimulate the industry to minimise wastes and to find diversified applications for the components of wastes. Basic research on sugars and phenolics is necessary to explore new chemical and biochemical conversions using up-to-date (green) chemistry and progress in enzymology biotechnology. Enzyme modification or bioconversion of polysaccharides and oligo- monosaccharides or phenolics is important to produce more specific modifications in relation to the...

Plant Responses to Increases in Atmospheric [CO2

Possible beneficial modifications that could be exploited by plant breeders may be discovered by examining plant responses to elevated CO2 . At intermediate temperatures, doubling atmospheric CO2 increased grain yield of various small grain cereals by 32 and grain legumes by 54 (Kimball, 1983), but the increases often were less than the increases in photosynthesis that occur with short-term doubling of CO2 at the same temperatures (Poorter, 1993 Allen, 1994). There are several possible explanations for the smaller yield responses to long-term CO2 enrichment compared with the short-term photo-synthetic responses. A major factor is the down-regulation of photosynthetic capacity under long-term exposure to elevated CO2 that occurred in some experiments. This down-regulation could either be a consequence of artificial growth conditions or it may indicate that current cultivars of C3 plants are not well-adapted to elevated CO2 . Down-regulation has been attributed to feedback mechanisms...

Seedling dependence on seed reserves

A starchy seed of the same mass should only achieve a seedling mass 8 less than the seed mass. However, in reality plants are biochemically less efficient at utilising lipid than starch, so the advantage of lipids as seed stores is not as great as predicted, although they are still space-saving in comparison to carbohydrates. One might predict therefore that very small seeds should tend to be oilier than large ones, in order to store more energy in the tiny packet. However, wide-ranging surveys have found that big seeds tend to be oilier than small ones (Levin 1974). This is possibly to keep very energy-rich seeds within the size limits imposed by effective dispersal (Kitajima 1996).


Fig. 3-11 Carbohydrates in (a) 3-, 5-, and 6-carbon sugars (monosaccharides), (b) oligosaccharides, and (c) polysaccharides. (Reprinted with permission from W. K. Purves and G. H. Orians, Life The Science of Biology, pp. 63-81, Copyright 1987 by Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.) Carbohydrates form a diverse group of compounds (Fig. 3-11) that share an approximate formula (CH20) . The major categories of carbohydrates are monosaccharides (simple sugars, Fig. 3-1 la) oligosaccharides (small numbers of simple sugars linked together, Fig. 3-llb) and polysaccharides (very large molecules, Fig. 3-1 lc), among which are starches, glycogen, cellulose, and other important compounds. Derivative carbohydrates, such as sugar phosphates and amino sugars, contain additional elements. Important amino sugars are cartilage and chitin, the principal structural carbohydrate in insect skeletons and cell walls of fungi.

Future Perspectives

There is another part of the equation relating food production and population growth that remains a puzzle how much food, and how varied a diet, is required for each member of the population This is not a topic on which I can claim any authority. Nevertheless, I feel that it merits attention in relation to future perspectives. There is now an extensive literature, provoked initially in regard to protein, following the large reductions in the FAO figures for essential quantities required, spurred by John Waterlow's work at the Rowett Institute in Aberdeen. The debate on protein quality, and the need for high levels of animal rather than vegetable protein, has distorted the discussions of food security for many years and is still not finally resolved (Waterlow et al., 1998). I will not rehearse the arguments here, other than to say that livestock produce about 30 of current food consumption, and that it is important that the need for this is recognized. The success of the early...

Gel formation

Compressible gel formation often occurs when molecules with very low diffusion coefficient are present. The most common species of this include humic substances, bioslimes, phenols, pesticides (and other industrial compounds), and macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, cheesy whey, greases, oils, surfactants, and tannins).

Carbon Fertilization

Carbon dioxide is an input in photosynthesis, which uses solar energy to combine water and carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates, with oxygen as a waste product.1 In addition, higher atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide reduce plants' stomatal (pore) openings and hence the loss of water to respiration. So-called C3 crops, which include rice, wheat, soybeans, fine grains, legumes, and most trees, benefit substantially from additional atmospheric carbon dioxide. Benefits for C4 crops, which include maize, millet, sorghum, and sugarcane, are much more limited.2

Antarctic Soils

General theories for soil formation in Antarctica, according to geo-pedo-logical features and latitude, were developed by Bockheim and Ugolini (1990). However, the results of pedological research performed during the last decade in coastal ice-free areas of East Antarctica, excluding the cold desert of Victoria Land (e.g. Blume and Bolter 1993 Blume et al. 1997), suggest that these theories should be extended. The Casey area (Wilkes Land) lacks the ahumic red soils described in Victoria Land, and soil formation and chemical weathering in this area may occur to a greater extent than predicted in former models. Beyer et al. (2000) summarised pedogenetic findings in this area based on a large-scale database, and suggested the importance of podzolization and of the accumulation of organic matter in soil-forming processes along the desert margins. Podzols represented 20 in total of the soil landscape in the Casey area (one-third is ornithogenic and two-thirds non-ornithogenic in origin...

Organic Substances

Carbohydrates, which are widely distributed in nature and found in wastewater, are organic substances that include starch, cellulose, sugars, and wood fibers they contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Sugars are soluble but starches are insoluble in water. The primary function of carbohydrates in higher animals is to serve as a source of energy. In lower organisms (e.g., bacteria), carbohydrates are utilized to synthesize fats and proteins as well as energy. In the absence of oxygen, the end products of decomposition of carbohydrates are organic acids, alcohols, and gases, such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The formation of large quantities of organic acids can affect the treatment process by overtaxing the buffering capacity of the wastewater, resulting in a drop in pH and a cessation of biological activity.

Wheat Quality

Elevated CO2 tends to increase mass per grain and decrease percentage N because of the increased supply of carbohydrate from photosynthesis, either during grain-fill or from reserves (Mitchell et al., 1993 Tester et al., 1995 Batts et al., 1997 Rogers et al., 1998). Elevated CO2 does not greatly alter the composition of the carbohydrates, e.g. types of sugars or starches, sugar starch ratio (Rogers et al., 1998). It also does not affect protein composition (Shewry et al., 1994). Increased CO2 interacted with nitrogen supply and temperature. Complex changes in lipid composition have been identified (Williams et al., 1995) and the effects of 700 mmol CO2 mol-1 are smaller than those of a 4 C temperature rise but the mechanisms are not understood. The non-polar neutral lipids di- and mono-galactosyldiacylglycerol increased where temperatures were 4 C above ambient and N was deficient at elevated CO2 , but decreased in ambient temperature conditions. With elevated CO2 and temperature,...

Municipal Waste

Biochemical conversion technologies use organisms to produce specific fuels. For example, a complex consortium of organisms found in nature will reduce cellulose and other carbohydrates to simple sugars, organic acids, and finally biogas. Currently, commercial biochemical conversion is limited to the recovery of biogas from landfills and sewage treatment. Future research could complete the development of technology to produce biogas or ethanol from municipal waste or selected components.


Phaeocystis produces at least five different pools of carbohydrates, each with their own characteristics. Since the overflow metabolism during the stationary phase of a bloom can be channeled towards glucan and mucopolysaccharides, these two pools are quantitatively the most important when the impact on the ecosystem is considered. The contribution of the pools is strongly dependent on environmental conditions. High light microcosms. Nature 414 495-498 Barlow RG (1982) Phytoplankton ecology in the Southern Benguela Current .3. Dynamics of a bloom. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 63 239-248 Baumann MEM, Lancelot C, Brandidni FP, Sakshaugh E, John DM (1994) The taxonomic identity of the cosmopolitan prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis a morphological and ecophysiological approach. J Mar Syst 5 5-22 Becquevort S, Rousseau V, Lancelot C (1998) Major and comparable roles for free-living and attached bacteria in the degradation of Phaeocystis-derived organic matter in Belgian coastal waters of the North Sea....

Food Production

Food takes many different forms, but a general description is anything that can be metabolized by a living organism to create energy or build tissue. For humans, this means matter comprised of some combination of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids (fats), or water. Food is often grouped into the broad categories grains, fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, legumes, and includes a separate category for the byproducts of meat and poultry production, such as milk, eggs, cheese, and yogurt.


As to the production of bioethanol from algal biomass, it will be recom-mendable to look by screening or by genetic engineering for algae producing carbohydrates that are more suitable to fermentation than the standard starch basis is. The same consideration holds also for other cell parts, such as the cell wall. Ideally, it consists of material that can also be easily fermented or alternatively used, for example by the BTE-technique, to produce energy.

Carbon balance

Uncinata) in situ near the treeline in the Swiss central Alps at 2180 m above sea level (Handa et al., 2005). A three-year long study found that elevated carbon dioxide levels enhanced photosynthesis and increased non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in the needles of both species. While the deciduous larch trees showed longer needles and a stimulation of shoot growth over all three seasons when grown in situ under elevated carbon dioxide, pine trees showed no such responses. After three years, the results suggested that for the deciduous larch carbon is limiting at the treeline, while for the evergreen pine it is not a limiting factor. It might be expected therefore that depending on the functional types of the treeline species increasing carbon dioxide availability may improve the carbon balance in some but not all cases. In complex cases it is sometimes useful to use modelling to simulate the likely outcome of changes in environmental conditions on some feature which is...

Organic solid waste

Anaerobic digestion is a biological process where organic material is broken down under anaerobic conditions to yield methane, stabilized sludge and partially treated wastewater. Many variations of anaerobic digestion have been, and continue to be, evaluated in order to improve digester performance and maximize the systems' ability to cope with variation in abattoir solid waste output. Some advantages of this system are the production of methane as a by-product, and the ability to handle the high organic loads associated with abattoir waste. Salminen and Rintala (2002) have published an excellent review of the degradation pathways involved in the conversion of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids (typical of solid slaughterhouse waste) through to methane. In addition, these authors have addressed the two major process-limiting by-products (long-chain fatty acids and ammonia) of anaerobic digestion.


Although photosynthesis in potato is repressed by high temperature (Ku et al., 1977), it is often not as sensitive to temperature as are tuberization and partitioning of carbohydrates to the tuber reproductive sink (Reynolds et al., 1990 Midmore and Prange, 1992). Therefore, moderately high temperatures can significantly reduce tuber yields even when photosynthesis and total biomass production are relatively unaffected. Potato possesses the C3 photosynthetic pathway, and the tubers are a large 'sink' for carbohydrates. Typically, as much as 70-80 of total dry weight at maturity is in the tubers (Moorby, 1970 Wolfe et al., 1983). Several reviews of the CO2-enrichment literature have concluded that sustained stimulation of photosynthesis by elevated CO2 is most likely in C3 plant species, such as potato, which have a large, indeterminate sink capacity for photosynthates (Stitt, 1991 Wolfe et al., 1998). The experimental data for potato have not always corroborated this hypothesis,...

Transport Processes

Expressing an apoplastic invertase that increases the tuber size when expressed in potato tubers, in source but not in sink tissues, leads to a very strong reduction of biomass production, because the carbohydrates that are usually transported as sucrose cannot leave the source organs.6 The same is achieved by inhibiting the expression of the sucrose transporter that is responsible for loading sucrose into the vascular system.7 It is there

Carbon dioxide

Acclimation of photosynthesis occurs during the long-term exposure of plants to elevated CO2 , when the initial strong increase of photosynthesis declines. Leaves grown under elevated CO2 show reduced photosynthesis compared with leaves grown at ambient CO2 , when both are measured at ambient CO2 . Processes that affect the acclimation of photosynthesis have been related to situations in which the sink limits growth under elevated CO2 (Drake et al., 1997). During acclimation, concentrations of carbohydrates are increased and concentrations of soluble proteins and Rubisco are decreased. The lower concentrations of protein, and especially of Rubisco, are due to reduced gene expression mediated by the increase in carbohydrate concentrations. Thus, acclimation has been interpreted as a mechanism by which plants reduce leaf N content in order to increase sink growth. Rogers et al. (1998) studied acclimation of leaf photosynthesis before and after a cut in perennial ryegrass swards...

Treatment Methods

Wastewater from fruit and vegetable processing plants contains mainly carbohydrates such as starches, sugars, pectin, as well as vitamins and other components of the cell wall. About 75 of the total organic matter is soluble therefore, it cannot be removed by mechanical or physical means. Thus, biological and chemical oxidations are the preferred means for wastewater treatment 21,22 .

Nutrient deficits

While plants growing under limited N supply show reduced above-ground growth compared with non-limited plants, their root mass increased (Hebeisen etal., 1997) or decreased (Jongen etal., 1995 Soussana et al., 1996). However, the root shoot biomass ratio increased strongly (Soussana et al., 1996) i.e. a smaller proportion of total biomass was harvested. Leaf N and root N decreased, though the reduction in root N was much smaller. The larger proportion of root biomass implies that the roots contained a larger proportion of available N. Under N-limited conditions, yield and LAI of perennial ryegrass decreased (yield up to 20 ) at elevated CO2 during the first 3 years (Hebeisen et al., 2000). Additional carbohydrates were stored in the leaves and stubbles (Fischer et al., 1997), thus reducing leaf N (Zanetti et al., 1997). This indicates that the sink is limiting growth more in N-limited than in well-fertilized plants (Fischer et al., 1997). However, root growth strongly increased at...


Been identified and this list is rapidly growing. Phy-toplankton are mostly single cellular organisms and all are autotrophic (i.e., they contain photosynthetic pigments). These pigments allow phytoplankton to use the sun's energy to convert CO2 and inorganic nutrients, through photosynthesis, into biological molecules such as proteins and carbohydrates. This process of creating new biological molecules is called primary production. Phytoplankton are the only primary producers in the open oceans, and thus form the basis of the food chain in over 70 percent of the world's surface area.


Hydrolysis can detoxify a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic organics such as esters, ethers, carbohydrates, sulfonic acids, halogen compounds, phosphates, and nitriles. It can be conducted in simple equipment (in batches in open tanks) or in more complicated equipment (continuous flow in large towers). However, a potential disadvantage is the possibility of forming undesirable reaction products. This possibility must be evaluated in bench- and pilotscale tests before hydrolysis is implemented.

Genetic Variability

Landraces have been found to be more water-use-efficient, extracting water from deeper in the soil profile than modern cultivars and possessing higher soluble stem carbohydrates (Reynolds et al. 2007a, Reynolds and Trethowan 2007). They are also more heat tolerant, characterized by higher leaf chlorophyll and higher stomatal conductance (Hede et al. 1999 Skovmand et al. 2001). One might argue that the stress tolerance that is present in the landraces is the same as that found in modern cultivars as the modern materials were derived from lan-draces. However, genotyping studies show that stress tolerant landraces are generally genetically distant from the more tolerant modern wheats (Moghaddam et al. 2005 Reynolds et al. 2007b). Similarly, in a study of landrace diversity in the backgrounds of 143 commercial rice cultivars in Brazil, it was found that only 14 ancient cultivars contributed 70 percent of the important genes (Guimaraes 2002). Clearly, there is significant scope to broaden...

Diameter class cm

Many authors have emphasised the soft and light wood of pioneer species (Swaine & Whitmore 1988 Alexandre 1989 Bazzaz 1991). Certainly well-known genera of pioneers such as Cecropia, Macaranga, Musanga and Trema typically have very low timber densities. In Borneo, species from secondary forest stands 2-6 years old were found to have stem specific gravity in the range 0.28-0.34 (mean 0.31), considerably lower than nearby primary forest where the range was 0.54-0.62 (mean 0.58) (Suzuki 1999). Adult wood density has been shown to be a positive correlate of juvenile shade tolerance (Augspurger 1984). Low-density wood is relatively weak, and there is growing evidence that pioneer species are poor at re-sprouting after breakage of the trunk or major branches (Putz & Brokaw 1989 Negrelle 1985). Possible contributory factors to this limited ability to recover from major damage are a low allocation by the plant to stored carbohydrates and the paucity of dormant buds (Zimmerman et al....

Extreme physiology

Maintaining the integrity of cell membranes is essential for the survival of an organism. The outer plasma membrane separates the cell from the environment and controls the exchange of materials between the inside and outside of the cell. Membrane systems within the cell (such as those of the endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus and mitochondria) play many important roles in the metabolism of cells. Cell membranes consist of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. The lipid component, in

Functional Aspects

Obtained from an enrichment culture grown on a very rich medium (M.A.Cambon-Bonavita, unpubl. data). The free-living, marine spirochetes Spirochaeta isovalerica and S. litoralis consistently form a neighboring clade of the oligochaete spirochetes. These bacteria were isolated from sulfidic muddy sediments and are obligate anaerobes that ferment carbohydrates mainly to acetate, ethanol, CO2, and H2 (Hespell and Canale-Parola 1973 Harwood and Canale-Parola 1983). While fermentation is one possible metabolic pathway of the oligochaete spirochetes, they could also have a completely different metabolism, just as the spirochete symbionts in termites do not possess properties common to their closest free-living relatives within the genera Treponema. Instead, termite spirochetes were recently discovered to be chemoautotrophic, using H2 and CO2 to produce acetate (Leadbetter et al. 1999), and were also shown to be able to fix nitrogen (Lilburn et al. 2001). These types of metabolism would...


Sugar (esp. glucose) is mainly used for the production of ethanol. Complex carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose can also be used as a glucose source. The main sources of starch are maize (corn), potatoes, wheat, tapioca (cassava), rice, arrowroot and barley. Starch as well as sugar (here sucrose) is used mainly in the ethanol production, but also in the fermentation of organic acids (such as citric and lactic acids), amino acids, and antibiotics. Some of the other technical applications include biodegradable plastics (polylactic acid (PLA)) for the packaging and textile industries, surfactants, polyurethane, resins, binders, solvents, biopesticides and lubricants. On the other hand cellulose is mainly separated, along with lignin and proteins, from plants and biomass residues, such as wood or straw. In contrast to starch, the fermentation of cellulose with current enzymes is relatively slow and inefficient. Harsher environments as well as more complex and capital intensive...

Biogas potential

Biochemical methane potential (BMP) and anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) The methane potential of wastewater is related to COD and the treatment efficiency. The maximum theoretical yield of methane for carbohydrates is 0.35 L CHt g COD removed at standard temperature and pressure (Droste, 1997). The maximum methane potential of wastewater may not be realized in a treatment process for reasons such as the refractory nature of some of the organics.

General Developments

High volume biofuels, such as bioethanol, and food and feed applications, such as amino acids and vitamins already exist. In the near future, biopolymers are expected with their substantial growth to be added to the list. Several companies have or intend to add a variety of products based on fermentable carbohydrates to their portfolio. Polylactic acid (PLA) and 1,3-propanediol (PDO) have already been commercialized by Cargill and DuPont, respectively. Bioethanol-based polyethylene (PE- is expected to be shortly commercialized by Braskem and Dow. Solvay has announced the commercialization of a partially bio-based PVC. Other announcements include succinic acid (DSM) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) (Cargill and Novozymes). Countless other derivatives are expected in the coming years as the economics prove competitive.

Bioacrylic Acid

Several new bio-based production routes are becoming available. Carbohydrates could be converted via fermentation to lactic acid, 3-HP or to 3-hydroxypro-pionaldehyde (3-HPA) and finally into acrylic acid in consecutive catalytic steps. Lactic acid and 3-HP are catalytically dehydrated directly to acrylic acid 3-HPA is catalytically dehydrated to acrolein and only then oxidized to acrylic acid. Glycerol as a by-product from biodiesel production could also be used in a two step catalytic process first dehydrated to acrolein and then oxidized to acrylic acid.

Lactose from whey

Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates of three to ten linked monomer sugars most commonly produced by enzymic transglycosylation reactions of lactose (Playne & Crittenden 1996). Oligosaccharides pass through the colon unde-graded, where they encourage the growth of bifidobacteria in the intestine. Oligosaccharides also contribute to the development of the immune system, in human milk they have a protective effect against viral and bacterial infections, stimulate the immune response and enhance the bioavailability of minerals (Geisser et al. 2005). Oligosaccharides are water soluble and mildly sweet, they have a high viscosity and can contribute to the mouth-feel of the product. They can be used as a humectant, to control Maillard browning or inhibit starch retrogradation (Crittenden & Playne 1996).

Breeding approaches

PDC (2-oxo-acid carboxylase) is the first enzyme channelling carbohydrates towards alcoholic fermentation and is considered to be the rate-limiting step in this pathway. A number of different plant PDC genes have been cloned and sequenced. Maize and rice are the most extensively analysed plant systems for the characterization of PDC enzymes and their corresponding genes. It has been hypothesized that change in the subunit composition confers upon rice seedlings the capacity to carry out active ethanol fermentation during prolonged treatment with anoxia (Dennis et al., 2000 Agarwal and Grover, 2006). Increased SuSy activity after the onset of hypoxia has been documented in many crop species including wheat, maize, rice and potato. SuSy exists in the cytoplasm of many non-photosynthetic tissues, where it increases sucrose cleavage, providing carbohydrates for alcoholic fermentation and the synthesis of storage and structural polymers (Dennis et al., 2000 Agarwal and Grover, 2006).

Soil Carbon Dynamics

Plant Functional Traits

Carbon sequestration implies transferring CO2 from a pool that has a short turnover time into a pool with a longer turnover time. Specifically, it involves the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere and its storage in long-lived pools, such as soil, vegetation, wetlands, oceans, and geologic strata. There are two main ways to sequester C as illustrated in Figure 5.2. The biotic strategy involves conversion of CO2 into carbohydrates, lignin, cellulose, and other forms of biomass through

Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels are the remains of living things that were buried underground before they had time to decay. Coal is made of plants, so it contains the remains of the carbohydrates they created using the energy of sunlight. So coal is stored solar energy, compacted over millions of years.

Oxygen Cycle

These reactions take place among the three different primary reservoirs, or storage areas of all of Earth's oxygen. These storage areas are varied and differ in physical and chemical form. The lithosphere, which contains the vast majority of the Earth's total oxygen, comprises the entirety of the Earth's crust and the uppermost portion of the mantle (tectonic plates can be viewed as lithospheric plates) in this reservoir, oxygen is bound in the form of rocks and minerals, primarily in silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3). The second reservoir is the biosphere, in which all living matter resides, including bacteria, plant life, animals, and human beings. The oxygen bound in this reservoir is found in the macromol-ecules of life, including nucleic acids, carbohydrates, proteins, and water. The last oxygen reservoir is the atmosphere, which is composed of approximately 20.95 percent oxygen gas, .038 percent carbon dioxide (CO2), and water vapor (H2O).

Anaerobic Operations

As mentioned previously, the role of H, as an electron sink is central to the production of acetic acid as the major end product of acidogenesis. Reactions leading from long chain fatty acids, volatile acids, amino acids, and carbohydrates to acetic acid and H are thermodynamically unfavorable under standard conditions, having positive standard free energies. Thus, when the H. partial pressure is high, these reactions will not proceed and instead, fermentations occur, with the results discussed above. Under conditions in which the partial pressure of H is 10 4 atmospheres or less, however, the reactions are favorable and can proceed, leading to end products (acetic acid and H ) that can be converted to methane. This means that the bacteria that produce H2 are obligately linked to the methanogens that use it. Only when the methanogens continually remove H by forming methane will the H partial pressure be kept low enough to allow production of acetic acid and H as the end products of...

Carbon Cycle

In the atmosphere, carbon exists primarily as the gas CO2. It is this form that plants transform into carbohydrates via photosynthesis, releasing oxygen in the process. This process is mainly carried out in autotrophs (terrestrial and aquatic plants such as algae and cyanobacteria). They produce their organic compounds using atmospheric CO2, with solar radiation providing the source of energy for the process. However, a minor group of autotrophs harness chemical energy sources for the production of their organic compounds through a process called chemosynthesis. Through the food chain, carbon is transferred as autotrophs (producers) and eaten by heterotrophs or as heterotrophs feed on other organisms. When the plants and animals die, their carcasses, stems, or leaves decompose, releasing the carbon trapped in them into the geosphere. Some could be buried, and over time, will become fossil fuels. Food webs serve as part of a carbon atom's journey through the carbon cycle. Carbon is...

Anaerobic Digestion

Process residual (thickened or unthickened sludge) is pumped into the sealed digester. The organic matter digests anaerobically by a two-stage process. Sugars, starches, and carbohydrates are converted to volatile acids, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. The volatile acids are then converted to methane gas. This operation can occur in a single tank (single stage) or in two tanks (two stages).

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