The Chuvans are formally Orthodox Christians. They celebrate Orthodox holidays, and sacraments such as weddings are executed according to Orthodox practices. This is also true for funerals, although male graves are still supplied with tobacco, and those of females with household articles.

The main spiritual heritage, however, is derived from old animistic beliefs, while elements of shamanism still influence their religious practices. Traditional spiritual elements are to a greater extent preserved within the reindeer-breeding population, where seasonal holidays reflect the cycle of reindeer-breeding activities, along with traditional sacrifices. Orthodox icons occur together with shamanistic, wooden, bone, or clay figures of humans and animals.

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