Recent Times

In 1927, Ilimpiysky, Baikitsky, and Tungus-Chunsky National Districts united to form the Evenk National District (later the Evenki Autonomous Okrug). In the 1930s, reindeer-breeding collectives were formed, settled villages were built, and agriculture was introduced. In the 1950s, integration of collective farms took place.

In 1928-1929, an alphabet on the basis of the Latin script, and since 1937 on the basis of the Russian script, was created. In 1931, the first book in the Evenki language was published. Since the 1930s, Evenk has been taught in schools. A national intelligentsia has formed, and today a policy of revival of Evenk culture and traditions is being conducted.

Although reindeer numbers have decreased, many modern Evenki still follow a traditional nomadic hunting and reindeer-breeding lifestyle. In 1990, Evenki began to come off the state-farm system and to organize tribal communities once more.

Maya Vasil'eva

See also Evenki Autonomous Okrug; Evens; Northern Altaic Languages; Tungus

Further Reading

Anderson, D., "The Evenkis of Central Siberia." In Endangered Peoples of the Arctic: Struggles to Survive and Thrive, edited by M. Freeman, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2000

Borisov, M.N., Malochislennye etnosy Severa: vchera, segodny, zavtra (sosiologicheskie ocherki) [The small peoples of north: yesterday, today, tomorrow (sociological sketches)], Rybinsk, 1995

Malochislennye narody severa Yakutii: sostoynie, problemu. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov [The small peoples of northern Yakutia: condition, problems. A collection of the proceedings], Yakutsk: Iakutskii nauchnyi tsentr SO RAN, 1993 Ermolova, N.V., "Evenki: problema etnicheskikh razlichiy i lokal'nykh grupp." In Etnosy i etnicheskieprosessy [Evenki: Problem of ethnic distinctions and local groups. In Ethnos and Ethnic Processes], edited by V.A. Popov, Moscow: Nauka, 1993

Levin, M.G. & L.P. Potapov (editors), Narody Sibiri, Moscow: Russian Academy of Sciences, 1956; as The Peoples of Siberia, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1964 "Narody Sibiri," In Ocherki obsh'ey etnografii. Aziatskaya chast' SSSR [The peoples of Siberia. In Sketches of General Ethnography. The Asian Part of USSR], edited by S.P. Tolstova, M.G. Levina & N.N. Cheboksarova, Moscow: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1960 Tishkov, V.A. (editor), Narody Rossii, entsiklopediia [The peoples of Russia], Moscow: Bol'shaia Rossiiskaia Entsiklopediia, 1994 Tugolukov, V.A., Tungusy (evenki i eveny) sredney i zapadnoy Sibiri [Tungus (Even and Evenk) of central and western Siberia], Moscow: Nauka, 1983

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