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Volume 1 A-F

Mark Nuttall, Editor

ROUTLEDGE

NEW YORK AND LONDON

Published in 2005

Cover Photos

270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 www.routledge-ny.com

Routledge

Volume 1: Inuit hunters in kayaks return to shore towing a narwhal they have harpooned, Qaanaaq, Northwest Greenland. Copyright Bryan and Cherry Alexander Photography

Published in Great Britain by Routledge 2 Park Square

Volume 2: Polar bear mother and cubs on new sea ice, Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Copyright Bryan and Cherry Alexander Photography

Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN U.K. www.routledge.co.uk

Volume 3: Northern lights, aurora borealis, over a Nenets reindeer herders camp, Yamal Peninsula, Western Siberia, Russia. Copyright Bryan and Cherry Alexander Photography

Copyright © 2005 by Routledge.

Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group.

This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Encyclopedia of the Arctic / Mark Nuttall, editor. P. cm.

ISBN 1-57958-436-5 (set: alk. paper) -- ISBN 1-57958-437-3 (volume 1 : alk. paper) -- ISBN 1-57958438-1 (volume 2 : alk. paper) -- ISBN 1-57958-439-X (volume 3 : alk. paper) 1. Arctic regions -Encyclopedias. I. Title: Arctic. II. Nuttall, Mark. G606. E49 2005

909'.0913'03--dc22 2004016694

ISBN 0-203-99785-9 Master e-book ISBN

BOARD OF ADVISERS

Dr. David G. Anderson

Department of Anthropology University of Aberdeen Scotland

Lawson Brigham

Deputy Director, US Arctic Research Commission Arlington, Virginia

Prof. Terry V. Callaghan

Director, Abisko Scientific station Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Abisko, Sweden

Dr. Torben R. Christensen

Department of Plant Ecology

Lund University

Sweden

Dr. Liz Cruwys

Scott Polar Research Institute University of Cambridge England

Mads Fœgteborg Arctic Information Copenhagen Denmark

Prof. Peter Johnson

Department of Geography University of Ottawa Ontario, Canada

Dr. Igor Krupnik

Arctic Studies Center National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institution Washington DC

Dr. Molly Lee

University of Alaska Museum University of Alaska Fairbanks

Dr. Hanne Petersen

Director, Danish Polar Center Copenhagen, Denmark

Prof. Louis-Jacques Dorais

Department of Anthropology Laval University Quebec, Canada

Prof. Julian Dowdeswell

Director, Scott Polar Research Institute

University of Cambridge

England

Dr. Beau Riffenburgh

Scott Polar Research Institute University of Cambridge England

Dr. David Scrivener

Department of International Relations University of Keele Keele, England

Dr. Niels Einarsson Director

Stefansson Arctic Institute Akureyri, Iceland

Dr. Frank Sejersen

Department of Eskimology University of Copenhagen Denmark

Prof. Sergei Sutyrin Department of World Economy St. Petersburg University Russia

Prof. Peter Wadhams

Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics University of Cambridge England

Prof. Gunter Weller

Cooperative Institute for Arctic Research University of Alaska Fairbanks

Karla Jessen Williamson

Executive Director

Arctic Institute of North America

University of Calgary

Alberta

Canada

Prof. Robert G. Williamson

Arctic Institute of North America University of Calgary Alberta Canada

Contents

Entries A-Z ix Thematic List of Entries xxiii Foreword xxxvii Preface xxxix

Map of Arctic Populations xliii Map of Arctic Indigenous Peoples xliv Entries A-Z 1-2226 List of Contributors 2227 Index 2247

Entries A-Z

Volume 1 A

Aasiaat Aasivik

Aboriginal Identities Adamson, Shirley Adaptation Adoption

Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears

Ainana, Lyudmila

Ainu

Air Routes

Akureyri

Alaska

Alaska Beluga Whale Committee Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission (AEWC) Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN) Alaska Highway

Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA)

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA)

Alaska Native Language Center

Alaska Native Review Commission

Alaska Native Science Commission

Alaska Peninsula

Alaska Range

Alaska Treaty (Convention for the Cession of the Russian

Possessions in North America to the United States) Albedo Alert Aleut

Aleut Corporation

Aleut International Association

Aleutian Islands

Aleutian Range Aleutian Tradition

Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association Alootook Ipellie Alpha Ridge

Alphabets and Writing, North America and Greenland

Alphabets and Writing, Russia

Alphabets and Writing, Scandinavia and Iceland

Alta/Kautokeino Demonstrations

Alutiit

Amagoalik, John

Amedeo, Luigi, Duke of Abruzzi

American Paleo-Arctic Tradition

Amphibians

Amund Ringnes Island

Amundsen Basin

Amundsen, Roald

Anadyr

Anadyr River

Anchorage

Andrée, Salomon August

Animal-rights movements and renewable resources Animals in the worldviews of indigenous peoples Anzhu, Petr Fedorovich

Archaeology of the Arctic: Alaska and Beringia Archaeology of the Arctic: Canada and Greenland Archaeology of the Arctic: Scandinavian Settlement of the North Atlantic Archbishop Innocent (Ivan Veniaminov) Arctic Athabaskan Council Arctic Char Arctic Circle Arctic Council

Arctic: Definitions and Boundaries Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy

Arctic Fox

Arctic Ground Squirrel Arctic Hare Arctic Haze

Arctic Leaders' Summit Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean Hydrographical Expedition, 1909-1915 Arctic Peoples' Conference Arctic Pilot Project

Arctic Research Consortium of the United States

(ARCUS) Arctic Research Policy Act Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC) Arctic Small Tool Tradition Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (1971) Arctic Woodland Culture Arkhangel'sk Arkhangel'skaya Oblast' Arms Control Armstrong, Terence Arnasson, Ingolfur Aron from Kangeq Art and Artists (Indigenous) Arutyunov, Sergei Association Inuksiutit Katimajiit Association of Canadian Universities for Northern

Studies (ACUNS) Association of World Reindeer Herders Atassut Athapaskan Atlantic Layer Atlasov, Vladimir Auk Aurora

Axel Heiberg Island B

Back River

Back, Sir George

Badigin, Konstantin Sergeyevich

Baer, Karl von

Baffin Bay

Baffin Island

Baffin, William

Bang, Jette

Banks Island

Barents Council

Barents Region

Barents Regional Council

Barents Sea

Barents, Willem

Barentsburg

Barnacle Goose Barrow

Barrow, Sir John Bartlett, Robert Bathurst Island Bathurst Mandate Bear Ceremonialism Bear Island Bearded Seal Bears

Beaufort Gyre Beaufort Sea Beechey, Frederick Belcher, Sir Edward Bel'kachi Culture Bellot, Joseph-Réné Beluga (White) Whale Bennett, James Gordon Jr Bering Sea Bering Strait Bering, Vitus Beringia

Bernier, Joseph-Elzéar Bilibino

Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant Billings, Joseph Bioconcentration Biodiversity

Biodiversity: Research Programmes

Biogeochemistry

Birch Forests

Birket-Smith, Kaj

Birnirk Culture

Birthplace Criteria

Bladder Ceremony

Blue Whale

Boas, Franz

Bogoraz, Vladimir Germanovich Boothia Peninsula Boreal Forest Ecology Bourque, James W. Bowhead (Greenland Right) Whale Brent Geese

British Arctic Expedition, 1875-1876 Brooks Range Bruce, W.S. Brun, Eske

Bunge, Alexander von Buntings and Longspurs Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Buryat Republic (Buryatiya) Button, Sir Thomas

Bylot Island Bylot, Robert Byrd, Richard Byrranga Mountains

Canada

Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918

Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC)

Canadian Basin

Canadian Polar Commission

Capacity Building

Capelin

Carbon Cycling Caribou

Caribou Hunting Cartography Cassiope Heaths Castren, Alexandr Mathias Charcot, Jean-Baptiste Chelyuskin, Semyon Chemnitz, Lars Cherevichny, Ivan Ivanovich Chernetsov, Valery Cherskii, Ivan Chirikov, Alexei Choris Culture Chugach Mountains Chukchi

Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (Chukotka) Chukchi Plateau Chukchi Sea

Chukchi-Kamchadal languages Chukotskoya Range

Churches in Greenland and the North American Arctic,

Establishment of Churches in Iceland and the Scandinavian Arctic,

Establishment of Churches in the Russian Arctic, Establishment of Churchill Chuvan

Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map Circumpolar Universities Association Clavering, Douglas C. Climate

Climate Change

Climate Oscillations

Climate: Environmental Initiatives

Climate: Research Programs

Clothing

Coal Mining

Coastal Erosion

Cod Wars Cold Halocline Collectivization Collins, Henry B. Collinson, Richard Colonization of the Arctic Colville River Comer, George Commander Islands

Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland

Committee for Original Peoples' Entitlement (COPE)

Committee of the North

Common (Harbor) Seal

Common Property Management

Concentric Spheres and Polar Voids, Theory of

Coniferous forests

Conservation

Contaminants

Convention for the Protection of the Marine

Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) Convention on International Trade in Endangered

Species (CITES) Cook, Frederick A. Cook, James Co-operatives Coppermine River Copse

Cornwall Island Cornwallis Island

Council of Yukon First Nations (CYFN)

Council for Yukon Indians Umbrella Final Agreement

Council of Tribal Athabascan Governments

Cournoyea, Nellie

Crantz, David

Cree

Crozier, Francis Curley, Tagak

Czaplicka, Marie Antoinette D

Daavi Suvva festival Dall's Sheep Dalton Highway

DANCEA (Danish Cooperation for Environment in the

Arctic) Daurkin, Nikolay Davis, John Davis Strait Dawson

De Long, George Washington De Long Islands

Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment (1991)

Demography and Population Dempster Highway Denbigh Flint Culture Dene

Denmark Strait

Department of Northern Affairs Act (1953)

Devon Island

Dezhnev, Semyon

Diamond Mining

Dikov, Nikolay

Dikson

Diomede Islands Disko Island

Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line

Divers or Loons

Dog Sledge in Inuit Culture

Dog Sledge in Northern Eurasia

Dogrib (Tlicho)

Dolgan

Dolgikh, Boris Dolphins and Porpoises Dorset Culture Drifting Stations Dry tundra Dudinka

Dwarf-Shrub Heaths Dyuktai Culture

East Siberian Sea

Ebierbing, Hannah (Tookoolito) and Joe Ecology and Environment Economic Development

Economic Inventory of the (Soviet) Polar North, 1926/27

Economic Policy

Education

Eenoolooapik

Egede, Hans

Egede, Ingmar

Egede, Poul

Eider

Eirik the Red Elders

Ellef Ringnes Island Ellesmere Island Ellis, Henry Ellsworth, Lincoln Empetrum Heaths Encyclopaedia Arctica Energy Balance Enets

Environmental History of the Arctic Environmental Problems

Environmentalism Erasmus, Georges Eriksson, Leif Eskers Eskimo

Eskimo-Aleut Languages

Eskimology

Ethnohistory

Evenki

Evenki Autonomous Okrug Evens

Exploration of the Arctic

Exxon Valdez

Eyak

Fairbanks Faroe Islands Fell-Fields Fens

Fiala, Anthony Fifth Thule Expedition Fin Whale Finland

Finnbogadottir, Vigdis

Finnmark

Fish

Fish Farming

Fisher, Alexander

Fisheries (Commercial)

Fjords

Floe Edge

Flora of the Tundra

Food chains

Food Use of Wild Species

Food Webs, Marine

Forests: Environmental Initiatives

Fossil Periglacial Phenomena

Fossils: Animal Species

Fossils: Plant Species

Foxe, Luke

Fram Strait

Franklin, Lady Jane

Franklin, Sir John

Franz Josef Land

Freshwater Ecosystems

Freshwater Hydrology

Freuchen, Peter

Frobisher, Sir Martin

Frost and Frost Phenomena

Fulmar

Fur Trade

Fur Trade, History in Russia

Volume 2 G

Gas Exploration Gas Hydrates Gelifluction Processes Gender

General Circulation Modeling

Geological History of the Arctic

Geomorphology

Geopolitics of the Arctic

Gessain, Robert

Giddings, Louis

Gilder, William Henry

Glacial Deposition

Glacial Erosion

Glacial Flow

Glacial Geomorphology

Glacier Growth and Decay

Glacier Ice

Glacier Mass Balance

Glaciers

Glaciology

Glavsevmorput (Chief Office for the Northern Sea Route)

Global Change Effects

Global Warming

Globalization and the Arctic

Gold Mining

Government of the Northwest Territories Legislation

(1966-) Graah, Wilhelm A. Grand Council of the Cree Gray Seal Gray Whale Gray, David, Jr Gray, David, Sr Great Bear Lake Great Slave Lake Great Stalin Railway Grebe

Greely, Adolphus W. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Greenland Greenland Halibut Greenland Home Rule Act

Greenland Hunters and Fishers Association (KNAPK) Greenland Ice Sheet Greenland Inuit Greenland Sea

Greenland Seafishery and Export Association

Greenland Shark

Greenland Technical Organization (GTO)

Grimsey

Grinnell, Henry

Grise Fjord

Ground Ice

Groupe d'études inuit et circumpolaires

Guillemot

Gulf of Alaska

Gulf Stream

Gulls

Gwich'in

Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claims Agreement Gwich'in Council International Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board Gwich'in Settlement Area Gwich'in Tribal Council

Habitat Loss Haida

Hall, Charles F. Handicrafts/Tourist Art Happy Valley Harp Seal Hatt, Gudmund Haven, Edwin J. De Hayes, Isaac I. Hazen, Lake

Health and Disease in the Arctic

Health: Environmental Initiatives

Health: Research Programmes

Hearne, Samuel

Heavy Metals

Hendrik, Hans (Suersaq)

Hensley, Willie

Henson, Matthew

Herb Slopes

Herbert, Wally

Herring

Herschel Island Herzen Institute Hibernation High Arctic High North Alliance H0egh, Erling Hoel, Adolf Holm, Gustav Holocene Holtved, Erik Hooded Seal Hopson, Eben Housing

Hrdlicka, Ales

Hudson Bay

Hudson, Henry

Hudson's Bay Company

Human Dimensions: Research Programs

Human Ecology

Human Population Trends

Humpback Whale

Hunting, Subsistence

Husavik

Hydrocarbon contamination I

Ice Ages Ice Caps Ice Core Record Ice Islands Ice Jams Ice Sheets Ice Shelves Icebergs Icebreakers Iceland Icelanders Igarka Igloolik

ILO Convention no. 107 ILO Convention no. 169 Ilulissat

Images of Indigenous Peoples Images of the Arctic Impacts of Climate Change Independence Culture

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC)

Indigenous Knowledge

Indigenous Peoples' Organizations and Arctic

Environmental Politics Indigenous Peoples' Secretariat Indigenous Rights Indigenous Worldviews Indigirka River Industrial Development Information Technology Inglefield, Edward A. Ingstad, Helge Innu

Insect Larvae Insects

Institute for Northern Minorities' Problems Institute of Peoples of the North Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

International Arctic Science Committee (IASC)

International Arctic Social Sciences Association (IASSA)

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES) International Polar Years International Union for Circumpolar Health International Whaling Commission (IWC) International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

(IWGIA) Inuit

Inuit Art Foundation

Inuit Ataqatigiit

Inuit Broadcasting Corporation

Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC)

Inuit Circumpolar Youth Council (ICYC)

Inuit Party

Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Iñupiat Inuvialuit

Inuvialuit Comanagement Bodies Inuvialuit Final Agreement Inuvialuit Settlement Region Inuvik

Invertebrates, Aquatic

Invertebrates, Terrestrial

Iokhel'son, Vladimir Il'ich

Ipiutak Culture

Iqaluit

Itel'men

Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund)

Ivanov, Sergei Vasil'evich

Ivittunt

Ivory Carving

Iyatayet

Jackson, Frederick

James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement

James Bay Hydroelectric Project

James, Thomas

Jan Mayen

Jenness, Diamond

Jesup North Pacific Expedition

Johansen, Lars Emil

Jökulhlaups

Josie, Edith

Kamchatka Peninsula Kamchatka River Kamchatskaya Oblast' Kames

Kane, Elisha Kent Kangerlussuaq Kara Sea Karelia

Kativik Environmental Quality Commission

Kativik Regional Government

Kayak

Kenai Peninsula

Kennedy, William

Kenojuak

Kettles

Khanty

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Khanty-Mansiisk

Khatanga

Khatanga River

Khlobystin, Leonid

Killer Whale

King Crab

King Eider

King Island

King William Island

Kinship

Kiruna

Kittiwake

Kleinschmidt, Samuel Klutschak, Henry Wenzel Knuth, Eigil Kobelev, Ivan Koch, Lauge Kodiak Island Kola Peninsula Kola Science Centre Kolchak, Alexander Koldeway, Karl Kolguyev Island Kolyma Highway Kolyma Range Kolyma River Komi

Komi Republic Koryak

Koryak Autonomous Okrug Kotzebue, Otto von Krasheninnikov, Stepan Krasnoyarsk Kray Krauss, Michael E. Kroeber, Alfred Kropotkin, Petr Kuchiev, Yuri Sergeevich Kuptana, Rosemarie

Kuskokwim Mountains Kuujjuaq

Labor Camps Labrador Inuit Labrador Inuit Association

Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement in Principle Labrador Sea Laguna, Frederica de Lancaster Sound

Land bridges and the Arctic Continental Shelf Land Claims

Land mammals: Research Programmes

Languages of the Arctic

Lapland

Laptev Sea

Laptev, Dmitriy

Laptev, Khariton

Large Marine Ecosystems

Larsen, Helge

Laxness, Haldor

Leadership

Leads

Leigh Smith, Benjamin

Lena River

Levin, Maxim

Lichen

Lincoln Sea

Literature, Greenlandic

Literature, North American

Literature, Russian

Litke, Fedor

Little Ice Age

Local and Transboundary Pollution Loess

Lomonosov Ridge London, Jack Longyear, John Longyearbyen Lovozero

Low Level Flight Training Low, Albert Peter Lynge, Aqqaluk Lynge, Augo Lynge, Finn Lyon, George Francis

Maak, Rikhard Karlovich Maarmorilik

Mackenzie Basin Mackenzie delta Mackenzie King Island Mackenzie River Mackenzie, Sir Alexander Mackenzie Valley pipeline MacLean, Edna Agheak MacMillan, Donald Baxter Magadan

Magadanskaya Oblast Magga, Ole Henrik Makivik Corporation Mallot, Byron Mammoth Mansi

Marine Biology Marine Mammal Hunting Marine Mammal Protection Act Marine mammals

Marine mammals: Research programmes Markham, Sir Albert H. Markham, Sir Clements R. Marshes

Mary-Rousseliere, Father Guy Masks

Mathiassen, Therkel McClintock, Francis Leopold McClure, Sir Robert McLaughlin, Audrey Media

Medical Science in the Arctic Melville Bay Melville Island Melville Peninsula Menovshchikov, Giorgyi Mesic Tundra Messenger Feast Meteorological Stations Métis

Metis National Council Microbes Microbial Mats Microclimates

Microtines (Lemmings, Voles) Middendorff, Alexander Middleton, Christopher Migration (Prehistory) Mikkelsen, Ejnar

Militarization of the Arctic in Russia

Militarization of the Arctic in the West

Minik

Mining

Minke Whale

Missionary Activity

Mitaarneq

Molloy Deep

Molluscs

Moose

Moraines

Moses, James Kivetoruk Mosquitoes Motzfeldt, Jonathan Mount McKinley (Denali) Mowat, Farley Munk, Jens Murdoch, John Murmansk

Murmansk Speech (1987) Murmanskaya Oblast'

Music (Contemporary Indigenous, Canadian Arctic)

Music (Traditional Indigenous)

Muskox

Mylius-Erichsen, Ludwig Mythology of the Inuit Myvatn Lake

Nalukatak

Naming

Nanai

Nanisivik

Nanortalik

Nansen Basin

Nansen, Fridtjof

Narwhal

Naryan-Mar

National Parks and Protected Areas:

Alaska

National Parks and Protected Areas:

Canada

National Parks and Protected Areas:

Finland

National Parks and Protected Areas:

Greenland

National Parks and Protected Areas:

Iceland

National Parks and Protected Areas:

Norway

National Parks and Protected Areas:

Russia

Native Corporations

Navigation, indigenous

Negidal

Nelson, Edward

Nelson Island

Nenets

Nenets Autonomous Okrug

New Siberian Islands

Newfoundland and Labrador

Nganasan

Nickul, Karl

Nikolaev, Mikhail E.

Nivkhi

Nobile, Umberto Noctilucent Cloud Formation Nomadism Nome

Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik

Nordic Council of Ministers

Nordic Saami Institute

Nordland

Noril'sk

N0rlund, Poul

Norman Wells

Norrbotten

Norse and Icelandic Sagas

North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO)

North Atlantic Drift

North Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission

(NAMMCO) North East Passage, Exploration of North Magnetic Pole North Pacific

North Pacific Fur Seal Convention North Pole

North Pole Air Expedition, 1937

North Slope

North West Company

North West Passage

North West Passage, Exploration of

Northern Altaic Languages

Northern Archaic Period

Northern Athapaskan Languages

Northern Bottlenose Whale

Northern Climate ExChange

Northern Dimension (of the European Union)

Northern Dimension of Canada's Foreign Policy

Northern Forum

Northern fur Seal

Northern Research Forum

Northern Sea Route

Northern Uralic Languages

Northwest Alaska Regional Corporation (NRC)

Northwest Territories

Norton Culture

Norway

Norwegian Saami parliament

Norwegian Sea

Novaya Zemlya

Novyi Urengoi

Nuclear Testing

Nunataks

Nunavik

Nunavik Political Accord Nunavut

Nunavut Final Agreement

Nunavut Tunngavik Inc.

Nunavut Wildlife Management Board

Nunivak Island

Nutrition and Food

Nuuk

Ny Herrnhut Volume 3 O

Ob' River Ocean Dumping Ocean Fronts Oceanography

Oceanography: Research Programs Oddsson, David Odulok, Tekki

Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation

Oil Exploration

Okalik, Paul

Okhotsk, Sea of

Okladnikov, Alexei

Old Bering Sea Culture

Old Crow Flats

Old Itel'men Culture

Old Kerek Culture

Old Koryak Culture

Olearius, Adam

Olenek River

Olsen, J0rgen

Olsen, Moses

Open Polar Sea

Orochi

Orok

Ozone Depletion P

Palana Pancake Ice

Papanin, Ivan Dmitrievich Parry, Sir William Edward Pastoralism

Patterned and Polygonal Ground

Payer, Julius

Peary, Robert E.

Peatlands and Bogs

Pechora Basin

Pechora Delta

Pechora River

Peck, Edmund James

Penny, William

Penzhina River Periglacial environments Permafrost

Permafrost Hydrology

Permafrost Retreat

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Petermann, August

Petersen, Robert

Petitot, Father

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Pevek

Phipps, Constantine

Physical Anthropology of the Arctic

Pilot Whale

Pilsudski, Bronislaw Piotr Pingos

Pinkfooted Goose Pitseolak, Peter Piugaattuk, Noah Place Names Plankton

Plant-Animal Interactions Plant Gathering

Plant Reproduction and Pollination Pleistocene Megafauna Polar Bear

Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP)

Polar Desert

Polar Fronts

Polar Lows

Polar Steppe

Polar Stratospheric Clouds Polar Vortex

Political Issues in Resource Management Pollock

Pollution: Environmental Initiatives

Pollution: Research Programs

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Polynyas

Pomor

Pond Inlet

Popov, Andrei

Precipitation and Moisture

Pre-Dorset Culture

Pribilof Islands

Primary Production

Primary Production, Marine

Prince Charles Island

Prince of Wales Island

Prince Patrick Island

Project Chariot

Protected Areas

Provideniya

Prudhoe Bay Pryde, Duncan Ptarmigan and Grouse Puffins

Pullar, Gordon

Qaanaaq Qaqortoq Qeqertarsuaq Qilakitsoq mummies Qillarsuaq

Quaternary Paleoclimatology Quaternary Paleogeography Quaternary Period Québec

Queen Elizabeth Islands Qumaq, Taamusi

Race to the North Pole Radio Greenland (KNR) Radioactivity Rae, John

Ragland Mining Project Rainey, Froelich Raptors

Rasmussen, Henriette

Rasmussen, Knud

Raven

Razorbill

Red Dog Mine

Redfish

Reindeer

Reindeer Pastoralism Relocation Repatriation Reptiles

Research Stations Resolute Base Resolute Bay Reykjavik Ribbon Seal Richardson, Sir John Ringed Seal Rink, Hinrich Johannes River and Lake Ice Rock glaciers Rosing, Hans Pavia Ross, Sir James Ross, Sir John Roussell, Aage

Rovaniemi Rowley, Graham

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Royal Geographical Society Royal Greenland

Royal Greenland Trade Company (KGH)

Rudenko, Sergei

Russia

Russian "Old Settlers" Russian American Company

Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North

(RAIPON) Russian Civil War

Russian Federal Law Guaranteeing the Rights of Native

Sparse Peoples of the Russian Federation Russian Federal Law on Clan Communes (Obshchinas) Russian Federal Law on Territories of Traditional

Nature Use Russian Geographical Society Russian Polar Expedition, 1900-1901 Rytkheu, Yuri

Saami

Saami Council Saami Parliaments Sabine, Edward Sacheuse, John Sachs Harbour

Sahtu Land Claims Agreement

Sahtu Renewable Resouces Board

Sahtu Settlement Area

Sakha Republic (Yakutia)

Sakhalin Island

Salekhard

Salinity Anomalies

Salmon

Sangi, Vladimir

Saqqaq Culture

Satellite Remote Sensing

Scandinavian Languages

Schneider, Lucien

Schultz, Ed

Schwatka, Frederick

Scoresby, William

Scrimshaw

Sculpin

Sea Ice

Sea Otter

Seabirds

Seal Skin Directive Second Kamchatka Expedition Secondary Production

Sedge Meadows Sedna: The Sea Goddess Sedov, Georgiy Yakovlevich Sei Whale Sel'kup

Self-Determination Self-Government Service, Robert Settlers (Labrador) Severnaya Dvina Severnaya Zemlya Seward Peninsula Shamanism Sharing Sheep

Sheep Farming

Shirokogorov, Sergey Mikhailovich Shmidt, Otto Yul'evich Shrimp Shrub Tundra

Shternberg, Lev Yakovlevich

Siberdik Culture

Siberian (Chukotkan) Yupik

Sibiryakov, Alexander

Sieroszewski, Waclaw Leopoldovich

Sikussak

Simon, Mary

Simpson, Thomas

Sirius Patrol

Sisimiut

Siumut

Skraeling Island Skuas and Jaegers Snow

Snow House Snow Patches Snowshoe Hare Soil Respiration Soils

Solovetski Islands Somerset Island Somov, Mikhail Mikhailovich Song Duel Soper, J. Dewey Southampton Island Space Weather Speranskii, Mikhail Sperm Whale

Sporting and Cultural Events in Canada Spotted Seal St Lawrence Island Stefansson Island Stefansson, Vilhjalmur

Steller, Georg Steller's Sea Lion Stratus Cloud Sturluson, Snorri Subarctic Sublimation

Submarines in Arctic Exploration Subpolar Gyres Substorms Sumnagin Culture Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development and Human Dimensions:

Environmental Initiatives Svalbard Svalbard Treaty Sverdrup, Otto Swaine, Charles Swan Sweden

Syalakh Culture Syktyvkar

Taiga

Tanner Crab Taqramiut Nipingat Tarya Culture Tasiilaq

Tatshenshini/Alsek Tattooing

Taymyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Okrug

Taymyr Lake

Taymyr Peninsula

Taz River

Tein, Tasyan

Telecommunications

Tern

Thalbitzer, William

Thermohaline Circulation

Thermokarst

Thule Air Base

Thule Culture

Tides

Tiksi

Tlingit

Tofalars

Tokarev Culture

Toll, Baron Edward von

Torrell, Otto

Tourism

Trade

Trans-Alaska Pipeline Trans-Arctic Air Route

Transpolar Drift Transport

Trans-Siberian Railway

Trapping

Treeline

Treeline Dynamics

Treshnikov, Aleksey Feodorovich

Troms

Troms0

Trophic Levels

Tsimshian

Tuktoyaktuk

Tundra

Tungus

Tupilak

Turner, Lucien M. Tussock Tundra Tutchone

Tyrrell, Joseph Burr Tyumen Oblast Tyumen'

Udege Ulchi

Ultraviolet-B radiation Umiak

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea United States of America

Universities and Higher Education Establishments,

North America and Greenland Universities and Higher Education Establishments,

Russia University of the Arctic Upernavik

Upper Atmosphere Physics and Chemistry

Ural Mountains

Urban Climates

Urbanization

Ushakov, Georgiy

Uummannaq

Vaigach

Van de Velde, Franz VanStone, James Vasilevich, Glafira Makar'evna Vdovin, Innokentiy Stepanovich Vegetation Distribution Verkhoyansk Range Vestmannaeyjar (Westman Islands) Vibe, Christian Victor, Paul-Emile

Victoria Island Vikings

Vilkitskii Strait

Vil'kitskii, Boris Andreevich

Vinland

Vize, Vladimir

Vlamingh, Willem de

Volcanoes and volcanic activity

Vorkuta

Voronin, Vladimir Ivanovich W

Waders Walrus

Warfare, Historical Waste Management Watkins, Gino Watt, Charlie Watt-Cloutier, Sheila Weasel Weather Wegener, Alfred Wellman, Walter West Nordic Council Western Telegraph Expedition Wet Tundra Weymouth, George Weyprecht, Karl Whaling, Historical Whaling, Subsistence White Sea

White-Fronted Goose Whitehorse

Wilderness

Wildlife Management: Environmental Initiatives

Windchill

Wolf

Wolverine Woodlands

World Council of Whalers

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International

Arctic Programme Wrangel Island

Wrangel Paleo-Eskimo Culture Wrangell, Baron Ferdinand Petrovich von

Yakuts Yakutsk

Yamal Peninsula

Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Yana River

Yasak

Yellowknife Yenisey River Ymyakhtakh Culture Yukagir

Yukon Native Language Centre Yukon River Yukon Territory Yupiit

Yupik Eskimo Society of Chukotka Z

Zagoskin, Lavrentii Zagoskin

Thematic List of Entries

Acts and Treaties

Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA)

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) Alaska Treaty (Convention for the Cession of the Russian Possessions in North America to the United States) Arctic Research Policy Act Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (1971) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR) Convention on International Trade in Endangered

Species (CITES) Council for Yukon Indians Umbrella Final Agreement Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment (1991)

Department of Northern Affairs Act (1953) Government of the Northwest Territories Legislation

(1966- ) Greenland Home Rule Act Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claims Agreement ILO Convention No. 107 ILO Convention No. 169

International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling

Inuvialuit Final Agreement

James Bay and Northern Québec Agreement

Labrador Inuit Land Claims Agreement in Principle

Marine Mammal Protection Act

North Pacific Fur Seal Convention

Nunavik Political Accord

Nunavut Final Agreement

Russian Federal Law Guaranteeing the Rights of Native

Sparse Peoples of the Russian Federation Russian Federal Law on Clan Communes (Obshchinas) Russian Federal Law on Territories of Traditional Nature Use

Sahtu Land Claims Agreement Svalbard Treaty

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Birds

Barnacle Goose

Brent Geese

Buntings and Longspurs

Divers or Loons

Eider

Fulmar

Grebe

Guillemot

Gulls

King Eider

Kittiwake

Pinkfooted Goose

Ptarmigan and Grouse

Puffins

Raptors

Raven

Razorbill

Seabirds

Skuas and Jaegers

Swan

Tern

Waders

White-Fronted Goose

Climate and Weather

Albedo Arctic Haze Climate

Climate Change

Climate Oscillations

Climate: Environmental Initiatives

Climate: Research Programs

Energy Balance

General Circulation Modeling

Global Warming

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Impacts of Climate Change

Meteorological Stations

Microclimates

Noctilucent Cloud Formation Ozone Depletion Polar Fronts Polar Lows

Polar Stratospheric Clouds Polar Vortex

Precipitation and Moisture Quaternary Paleoclimatology Snow

Stratus Cloud

Sublimation

Substorms

Upper Atmosphere Physics and Chemistry

Urban Climates

Weather

Windchill

Countries and Political Subdivisions

Alaska

Arkhangel'skaya Oblast' Barents Region Buryat Republic (Buryatiya) Canada

Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (Chukotka)

Evenki Autonomous Okrug

Faroe Islands

Finland

Finnmark

Greenland

Gwich'in Settlement Area Iceland

Inuvialuit Settlement Region Kamchatskaya Oblast' Karelia

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Komi Republic

Koryak Autonomous Okrug

Krasnoyarsk Kray

Lapland

Lappin laani

Magadanskaya Oblast'

Murmanskaya Oblast'

Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Newfoundland and Labrador

Nordland

Norrbotten

Northwest Territories

Norway

Nunavik

Nunavut

Québec

Russia

Sahtu Settlement Area Sakha Republic (Yakutia) Svalbard Sweden

Taymyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Autonomous Okrug Troms

Tyumen Oblast' United States of America Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Yukon Territory

Ecology and Environment

Adaptation

Animal-Rights Movements and Renewable Resources

Bioconcentration

Biodiversity

Biodiversity: Research Programs

Biogeochemistry

Boreal Forest Ecology

Capacity Building

Carbon Cycling

Climate Change

Common Property Management

Conservation

Contaminants

Ecology and Environment

Environmental History of the Arctic

Environmental Problems

Environmentalism

Exxon Valdez

Food Chains

Food Use of Wild Species

Food Webs, Marine

Freshwater Ecosystems

Global Change Effects

Habitat Loss

Heavy Metals

Hibernation

Human Ecology

Hydrocarbon Contamination

Large Marine Ecosystems

Local and Transboundary Pollution

Marine Biology

Microbes

Microbial Mats

Ocean Dumping

Ozone Depletion

Peatlands and Bogs

Permafrost Retreat

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

Plant-Animal Interactions

Plant Reproduction and Pollination

Pollution: Environmental Initiatives

Pollution: Research Programs

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Primary Production

Primary Production, Marine

Protected Areas

Radioactivity

Secondary Production

Soil Respiration

Soils

Treeline

Treeline Dynamics Trophic Levels Ultraviolet-B Radiation Vegetation Distribution Waste Management

Economics

Air Routes

Alaska Highway

Arctic Pilot Project

Bilibino Nuclear Power Plant

Coal Mining

Co-operatives

Dalton Highway

Dempster Highway

Diamond Mining

Economic Development

Economic Policy

Exxon Valdez

Fish Farming

Fisheries (Commercial)

Fur Trade

Gas Exploration

Gas Hydrates

Globalization and the Arctic Gold Mining Handicrafts/Tourist Art Icebreakers

Industrial Development James Bay Hydroelectric Project Kolyma Highway Maarmorilik

Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Mining

Nanisivik

Norman Wells

North West Passage

Northern Sea Route

Oil Exploration

Prudhoe Bay

Ragland Mining Project

Red Dog Mine

Scrimshaw

Sheep Farming

Sustainable Development

Telecommunications

Tourism

Trade

Trans-Alaska Pipeline Trans-Arctic Air Route Transport

Trans-Siberian Railway Trapping

Explorers and Exploration

Amedeo, Luigi, Duke of Abruzzi Amundsen, Roald Andrée, Salomon August Anzhu, Petr Fedorovich

Arctic Ocean Hydrographical Expedition, 1909-1915

Arnasson, Ingolfur

Atlasov, Vladimir

Back, Sir George

Badigin, Konstantin Sergeyevich

Baer, Karl von

Baffin, William

Barents, Willem

Barrow, Sir John

Bartlett, Robert

Beechey, Frederick

Belcher, Sir Edward

Bennett, James Gordon Jr.

Bering, Vitus

Bernier, Joseph-Elzear

Billings, Joseph

British Arctic Expedition, 1875-1876 Bunge, Alexander von Button, Sir Thomas Bylot, Robert Byrd, Richard

Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-1918 Charcot, Jean-Baptiste Chelyuskin, Semyon Cherevichny, Ivan Ivanovich Cherskii, Ivan Chirikov, Alexei

Clavering, Douglas C. Collinson, Richard Comer, George Cook, Frederick A. Cook, James Crozier, Francis Daurkin, Nikolay Davis, John

De Long, George Washington Dezhnev, Semyon

Ebierbing, Hannah (Tookoolito) and Joe

Eenoolooapik

Ellis, Henry

Ellsworth, Lincoln

Eriksson, Leif

Exploration of the Arctic

Fiala, Anthony

Fifth Thule Expedition

Fisher, Alexander

Foxe, Luke

Franklin, Lady Jane

Franklin, Sir John

Freuchen, Peter

Frobisher, Sir Martin

Gilder, William Henry

Greely, Adolphus W.

Grinnell, Henry

Hall, Charles F.

Haven, Edwin J. De

Hayes, Isaac I.

Hearne, Samuel

Hendrik, Hans (Suersaq)

Henson, Matthew

Herbert, Wally

Hudson, Henry

Inglefield, Edward A.

Jackson, Frederick

James, Thomas

Jesup North Pacific Expedition

Kane, Elisha Kent

Kennedy, William

Kobelev, Ivan

Koch, Lauge

Kolchak, Alexander

Koldeway, Karl

Kotzebue, Otto von

Kropotkin, Petr

Kuchiev, Yuri Sergeevich

Laptev, Dmitriy

Laptev, Khariton

Leigh Smith, Benjamin

Litke, Fedor

Lyon, George Francis

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander MacMillan, Donald Baxter Markham, Sir Albert H. Markham, Sir Clements R. McClintock, Francis Leopold McClure, Sir Robert Middendorff, Alexander Middleton, Christopher Mikkelsen, Ejnar Munk, Jens

Mylius-Erichsen, Ludwig

Nansen, Fridtjof

Nobile, Umberto

Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik

North East Passage, Exploration of

North Pole Air Expedition, 1937

North West Passage, Exploration of

Papanin, Ivan Dmitrievich

Parry, Sir William Edward

Payer, Julius

Peary, Robert E.

Penny, William

Petermann, August

Phipps, Constantine

Qillarsuaq

Race to the North Pole

Rae, John

Rasmussen, Knud

Richardson, Sir John

Ross, Sir James

Ross, Sir John

Royal Geographical Society

Russian Polar Expedition, 1900-1901

Sabine, Edward

Sacheuse, John

Schwatka, Frederick

Scoresby, William

Second Kamchatka Expedition

Sedov, Georgiy Yakovlevich

Shmidt, Otto Yul'evich

Sibiryakov, Alexander

Simpson, Thomas

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur

Steller, Georg

Submarines in Arctic Exploration Sverdrup, Otto Swaine, Charles Toll, Baron Edward von Treshnikov, Aleksey Feodorovich Tyrrell, Joseph Burr Ushakov, Georgiy Vibe, Christian Victor, Paul-Emile

Vil'kitskii, Boris Andreevich Vize, Vladimir Vlamingh, Willem de Voronin, Vladimir Ivanovich Watkins, Gino Wegener, Alfred Wellman, Walter Western Telegraph Expedition Weymouth, George Weyprecht, Karl

Wrangell, Baron Ferdinand Petrovich von Zagoskin, Lavrentii Zagoskin

Fish

Arctic Char Capelin Cod Fish

Greenland Halibut

Greenland Shark

Herring

King Crab

Molluscs

Pollock

Redfish

Salmon

Sculpin

Shrimp

Tanner Crab

History and Archaeology

See also Explorers and Exploration

Aleutian Tradition

American Paleo-Arctic Tradition

Archaeology of the Arctic: Alaska and Beringia

Archaeology of the Arctic: Canada and Greenland

Archaeology of the Arctic: Scandinavian Settlement of the North Atlantic Archbishop Innocent (Ivan Veniaminov) Arctic Small Tool Tradition Arctic Woodland Culture Armstrong, Terence Arutyunov, Sergei Bel'kachi Culture Birnirk Culture Chernetsov, Valery Choris Culture Cod Wars Collectivization Collins, Henry B. Colonization of the Arctic Committee of the North Denbigh Flint Culture

Dikov, Nikolay

Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line Dog sledge in Inuit Culture Dog sledge in Northern Eurasia Dorset Culture Drifting Stations Dyuktai Culture

Ebierbing, Hannah (Tookoolito) and Joe

Eenoolooapik

Eirik the Red

Eriksson, Leif

Encyclopaedia Arctica

Ethnohistory

Fur Trade, History in Russia Giddings, Louis

Glavsevmorput (Chief Office for the Northern Sea

Route) Graah, Wilhelm A. Gray, David, Jr. Gray, David, Sr. Great Stalin Railway Hatt, Gudmund Holtved, Erik Hrdlicka, Ales Hudson's Bay Company Independence Culture Ipiutak Culture Iyatayet

Khlobystin, Leonid Knuth, Eigil Labor Camps Laguna, Frederica de Larsen, Helge Longyear, John Mary-Rousseliere, Father Guy Mathiassen, Therkel Migration (Prehistory) Minik

N0rlund, Poul Norse and Icelandic Sagas North West Company Northern Archaic period Norton Culture Ny Herrnhut Okladnikov, Alexei Old Bering Sea Culture Old Crow Flats Old Itel'men Culture Old Kerek Culture Old Koryak Culture Petitot, Father Pre-Dorset Culture Qilakitsoq mummies

Rainey, Froelich

Melville Island

Roussell, Aage

Nelson Island

Rowley, Graham

New Siberian Islands

Rudenko, Sergei

Novaya Zemlya

Russian American Company

Nunivak Island

Russian Civil War

Pribilof Islands

Saqqaq Culture

Prince Charles Island

Scrimshaw

Prince of Wales Island

Siberdik Culture

Prince Patrick Island

Sumnagin Culture

Queen Elizabeth Islands

Syalakh Culture

Sakhalin Island

Tarya Culture

Severnaya Zemlya

Tein, Tasyan

Skraeling Island

Thalbitzer, William

Solovetski Islands

Thule Culture

Somerset Island

Tokarev Culture

Southampton Island

VanStone, James

St Lawrence Island

Vdovin, Innokentiy Stepanovich

Stefansson Island

Vikings

Vaigach

Vinland

Vestmannaeyjar (Westman Islands)

Warfare, Historical

Victoria Island

Whaling, Historical

Wrangel Island

Wrangel Paleo-Eskimo Culture

Yasak

Languages and Linguistics

Ymyakhtakh Culture

Alphabets and Writing, North America and Greenland

Islands

Alphabets and Writing, Russia

Alphabets and Writing, Scandinavia and Iceland

Aleutian Islands

Castren, Alexandr Mathias

Amund Ringnes Island

Chukchi-Kamchadal Languages

Axel Heiberg Island

Eskimo-Aleut Languages

Baffin Island

Krauss, Michael E.

Banks Island

Languages of the Arctic

Bathurst Island

Literature, Greenlandic

Bear Island

Literature, North American

Bylot Island

Literature, Russian

Commander Islands

Menovshchikov, Giorgyi

Cornwall Island

Norse and Icelandic Sagas

Cornwallis Island

Northern Altaic languages

De Long Islands

Northern Athapaskan Languages

Devon Island

Northern Uralic Languages

Diomede Islands

Petersen, Robert

Disko Island

Scandinavian Languages

Ellef Ringnes Island

Schneider, Lucien

Ellesmere Island

Shternberg, Lev Yakovlevich

Franz Josef Land

Vasilevich, Glafira Makar'evna

Grimsey

Herschel Island

Mammals and Other Land Animals

Jan Mayen

Adaptation

King Island

Amphibians

King William Island

Arctic Fox

Kodiak Island

Arctic Ground Squirrel

Kolguyev Island

Arctic Hare

Mackenzie King Island

Caribou Hunting Dall's Sheep Hibernation Hunting, Subsistence Insect Larvae Insects

Invertebrates, Aquatic

Invertebrates, Terrestrial

Land mammals: Research Programs

Mammoth

Microbes

Microtines (Lemmings, Voles)

Moose

Mosquitoes

Muskox

Plankton

Pleistocene megafauna

Reindeer

Reptiles

Sheep

Snowshoe Hare

Weasel

Wolf

Wolverine

Marine Mammals

Bearded Seal Beluga (White) Whale Blue Whale

Bowhead (Greenland Right) Whale

Common (Harbor) Seal

Dolphins and Porpoises

Fin Whale

Gray Whale

Grey Seal

Harp Seal

Hooded Seal

Humpback Whale

Killer Whale

Marine Mammal Hunting

Marine Mammals

Marine Mammals: Research Programs

Minke Whale

Narwhal

Northern Bottlenose Whale

Northern Fur Seal

Pilot Whale

Polar Bear

Ribbon Seal

Ringed Seal

Sea Otter

Sei Whale

Sperm Whale Spotted Seal Steller's Sea Lion Walrus

Whaling, Subsistence

National Parks and Protected Areas

National Parks and Protected Areas: Alaska National Parks and Protected Areas: Canada National Parks and Protected Areas: Finland National Parks and Protected Areas: Greenland National Parks and Protected Areas: Iceland National Parks and Protected Areas: Norway National Parks and Protected Areas: Russia Protected Areas

Oceanography

Atlantic Layer Beaufort Gyre Cold Halocline Floe Edge Gulf Stream Ice Islands Ice Shelves Icebergs Leads

North Atlantic Drift Ocean Fronts Oceanography

Oceanography: Research Programs Open Polar Sea Pancake Ice Polynyas

Salinity Anomalies

Sea Ice

Sikussak

Subpolar Gyres

Thermohaline Circulation

Tides

Transpolar Drift

Oceans, Seas and Bathymetry

Alpha Ridge Amundsen Basin Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Arctic Ocean Baffin Bay Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Bering Sea Bering Strait Canadian Basin Chukchi Plateau

Chukchi Sea Davis Strait Denmark Strait East Siberian Sea Fram Strait Greenland Sea Gulf of Alaska Hudson Bay Kara Sea Labrador Sea Lancaster Sound Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Lomonosov Ridge Melville Bay Molloy Deep Nansen Basin North Pacific Norwegian Sea Okhotsk, Sea of Vilkitskii Strait White Sea

Organizations

Alaska Beluga Whale Committee

Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission (AEWC)

Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN)

Alaska Native Language Center

Alaska Native Review Commission

Alaska Native Science Commission

Aleut Corporation

Aleut International Association

Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association

Arctic Athabaskan Council

Arctic Council

Arctic Leaders' Summit

Arctic Peoples' Conference

Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC)

Association Inuksiutit Katimajiit

Association of Canadian Universities for Northern

Studies (ACUNS) Association of World Reindeer Herders Barents Council Barents Regional Council Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC) Canadian Polar Commission Circumpolar Universities Association Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland Committee for Original Peoples' Entitlement (COPE)

Council for Yukon First Nations (CYFN )

Council of Tribal Athabascan Governments

DANCEA (Danish Cooperation for Environment in the

Arctic) Grand Council of the Cree

Greenland Hunters and Fishers Association (KNAPK)

Greenland Seafishery and Export Association

Greenland Technical Organization (GTO)

Groupe d'études inuit et circumpolaires

Gwich'in Council International

Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board

Gwich'in Tribal Council

Herzen Institute

High North Alliance

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) Indigenous Peoples' Organizations and Arctic

Environmental Politics Indigenous Peoples' Secretariat Institute for Northern Minorities' Problems Institute of Peoples of the North Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) International Arctic Social Sciences Association (IASSA)

International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES) International Union for Circumpolar Health International Whaling Commission (IWC) International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

(IWGIA) Inuit Art Foundation Inuit Broadcasting Corporation Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) Inuit Circumpolar Youth Council (ICYC) Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami Inuvialuit Comanagement Bodies Kativik Environmental Quality Commission Kativik Regional Government Kola Science Centre Labrador Inuit Association Makivik Corporation Métis National Council Native Corporations Nordic Council of Ministers Nordic Saami Institute

North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO)

North Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO)

North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO)

Northern Climate ExChange

Northern Dimension (of the European Union)

Northern Forum

Northern Research Forum

Northwest Alaska Regional Corporation (NANA)

Nunavut Tunngavik Inc.

Nunavut Wildlife Management Board

Office of Polar Programs, National Science Foundation

Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP)

Radio Greenland (KNR)

Research Stations

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Royal Greenland

Royal Greenland Trade Company (KGH)

Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North

(RAIPON) Russian Geographical Society Saami Council

Sahtu Renewable Resouces Board Sirius Patrol Taqramiut Nipingat

Universities and Higher Education Establishments, North

America and Greenland Universities and Higher Education Establishments,

Russia University of the Arctic West Nordic Council World Council of Whalers

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) International Arctic

Programme Yukon Native Language Centre Yupik Eskimo Society of Chukotka

Peoples

Ainu

Aleut

Alutiit

Athapaskan

Chukchi

Chuvan

Cree

Dene

Dogrib (Tlicho)

Dolgan

Enets

Eskimo

Evenki

Evens

Eyak

Greenland Inuit

Gwich'in

Haida

Icelanders

Innu

Inuit

Inupiat

Inuvialuit

Itel'men

Khanty

Komi

Koryak

Labrador Inuit

Mansi

Nanai

Negidal

Nenets

Nganasan

Nivkhi

Orochi

Orok

Pomor

Russian "Old Settlers"

Saami

Sel'kup

Settlers (Labrador)

Siberian (Chukotkan) Yupik

Tlingit

Tofalars

Tsimshian

Tungus

Tutchone

Udege

Ul'chi

Yakuts

Yukagir

Yupiit

Physical Geography

Arctic Circle

Arctic: Definitions and Boundaries Aurora

Biogeochemistry Coastal Erosion

Concentric Spheres and Polar Voids, Theory of

Eskers

Fjords

Fossil Periglacial Phenomena Fossils: Animal Species Fossils: Plant Species Freshwater Hydrology Frost and Frost Phenomena Gelifluction Processes Geological History of the Arctic Geomorphology Glacial Deposition Glacial Erosion Glacial Flow Glacial Geomorphology Glacier Growth and Decay Glacier Ice

Glacier Mass Balance

Glaciers

Glaciology

Ground Ice

High Arctic

Holocene

Ice Ages

Ice Caps

Ice Core Record

Ice Jams

Ice Sheets

Jokulhlaups

Kames

Kettles

Little Ice Age

Loess

Moraines

North Magnetic Pole North Pole Nunataks

Patterned and Polygonal Ground Periglacial Environments Permafrost

Permafrost Hydrology Pingos

Quaternary Paleogeography

Quaternary Period

Radioactivity

River and Lake Ice

Rock Glaciers

Satellite Remote Sensing

Space Weather

Subarctic

Thermokarst

Ultraviolet-B Radiation

Volcanoes and Volcanic Activity

Plants and Vegetation

Birch Forests Cassiope Heaths

Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map

Coniferous Forests

Copse

Dry Tundra

Dwarf-Shrub Heaths

Empetrum Heaths

Fell-Fields

Fens

Flora of the Tundra Food use of Wild Species Forests: Environmental Initiatives Herb Slopes

High Arctic Lichen Marshes Mesic Tundra Microbial Mats Plant Gathering

Plant Reproduction and Pollination

Polar Desert

Polar Steppe

Primary Production

Primary Production, Marine

Sedge Meadows

Shrub Tundra

Snow Patches

Soils

Subarctic

Taiga

Treeline

Treeline Dynamics Tundra

Tussock Tundra Vegetation Distribution Wet tundra Woodlands

Political and Cultural Figures

Adamson, Shirley Ainana, Lyudmila Alootook Ipellie Amagoalik, John

Archbishop Innocent (Ivan Veniaminov)

Aron from Kangeq

Bang, Jette

Bourque, James W.

Brun, Eske

Chemnitz, Lars

Cournoyea, Nellie

Crantz, David

Curley, Tagak

Egede, Hans

Egede, Ingmar

Egede, Poul

Erasmus, Georges

Finnbogadottir, Vigdis

Hensley, Willie

H0egh, Erling

Hopson, Eben

Iokhel'son, Vladimir Il'ich

Johansen, Lars Emil

Josie, Edith

Kenojuak

Kleinschmidt, Samuel

Klutschak, Henry Wenzel Kuptana, Rosemarie Laxness, Haldor London, Jack Lynge, Aqqaluk Lynge, Augo Lynge, Finn

MacLean, Edna Agheak Magga, Ole Henrik Mallot, Byron McLaughlin, Audrey Moses, James Kivetoruk Motzfeldt, Jonathan Mowat, Farley Nickul, Karl Nikolaev, Mikhail E. Oddsson, David Odulok, Tekki Okalik, Paul Olearius, Adam Olsen, J0rgen Olsen, Moses Peck, Edmund James Pitseolak, Peter Piugaattuk, Noah Pryde, Duncan Pullar, Gordon Qumaq, Taamusi Rasmussen, Henriette Rink, Hinrich Johannes Rosing, Hans Pavia Rytkheu, Yuri Sangi, Vladimir Schultz, Ed Service, Robert Simon, Mary

Somov, Mikhail Mikhailovich Speranskii, Mikhail Sturluson, Snorri Van de Velde, Franz Watt, Charlie Watt-Cloutier, Sheila

Politics

Alta/Kautokeino Demonstrations Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy Arms Control Atassut

Bathurst Mandate

G-50

G-60

Geopolitics of the Arctic

Indigenous Rights Inuit Ataqatigiit Inuit Party Land Claims

Low Level Flight Training

Militarization of the Arctic in Russia

Militarization of the Arctic in the West

Murmansk Speech (1987)

Northern Dimension of Canada's Foreign Policy

Norwegian Saami Parliament

Nuclear Testing

Political Issues in Resource Management

Project Chariot

Resolute Base

Saami Parliaments

Seal Skin Directive

Self-Determination

Self-Government

Siumut

Thule Air Base

Regions and Mountains

Alaska Peninsula Alaska Range Aleutian Range Beringia

Boothia Peninsula

Brooks Range

Byrranga Mountains

Chugach Mountains

Chukotskoya Range

Greenland Ice Sheet

High Arctic

Kamchatka Peninsula

Kenai Peninsula

Kola Peninsula

Kolyma Range

Kuskokwim Mountains

Land Bridges and the Arctic Continental Shelf

Mackenzie Basin

Mackenzie Delta

Melville Peninsula

Mount McKinley (Denali)

North Slope

Pechora Basin

Pechora Delta

Seward Peninsula

Subarctic

Taymyr Peninsula

Ural Mountains

Verkhoyansk Range

Yamal Peninsula

Research Programs and Environmental Initiatives

Biodiversity: Research Programs Climate: Environmental Initiatives Climate: Research Programs Forests: Environmental Initiatives Health: Environmental Initiatives Health: Research Programs Human Dimensions: Research Programs International Polar Years Land Mammals: Research Programs Marine Mammals: Research Programs Oceanography: Research Programs Pollution: Environmental Initiatives Pollution: Research Programs

Sustainable Development and Human Dimensions

Environmental Initiatives Wildlife Management: Environmental Initiatives

Rivers and Lakes

Anadyr River Back River Colville River Coppermine River Great Bear Lake Great Slave Lake Hazen, Lake Indigirka River Kamchatka River Khatanga River Kolyma River Lena River Mackenzie River Myvatn Lake Ob' River Olenek River Pechora River Penzhina River Severnaya Dvina Tatshenshini/Alsek Taymyr Lake Taz River Yana River Yenisey River Yukon River

Scientists, Archaeologists, and Ethnologists

Arutyunov, Sergei Baer, Karl von Billings, Joseph Birket-Smith, Kaj Boas, Franz

Bogoraz, Vladimi

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How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.

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