Longterm Variability

There were large changes in the thermohaline regime of the Arctic Ocean in the 1990s, including the Atlantic layer thickening (by more than 100 m at its lower

Inferred circulation of the Atlantic Layer and Upper Polar Deep Water in the Arctic Ocean. After Rudels et al., 1994

boundary) and warming (as much as 1°C) in the Nansen, Amundsen, and Makarov basins (Carmack et al., 1997). As a result, the temperature gradient between the Atlantic layer and surface layer, as well as the upward heat flux, has increased. These changes are consistent with the observed reduction in the sea ice cover and sea ice thickness in the Arctic Ocean (Rothrock et al., 1999).

Igor Belkin

See also Arctic Ocean; Cold Halocline; Oceanography; Thermohaline Circulation

Further Reading

Carmack, E.C., K. Aagaard, J.H. Swift, R.W. Macdonald, F.A. McLaughlin, E.P. Jones, R.G. Perkin, J.N. Smith, K.M. Ellis & L.R. Killius, "Changes in temperature and tracer distributions within the Arctic Ocean: results from the 1994 Arctic Ocean section." Deep-Sea Research II, 44(8) (1997): 1487-1502 Coachman, L.K. & K. Aagaard,"Physical Oceanography of Arctic and Subarctic Seas." In: Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas, edited by Y. Herman, New York: Springer, 1974, pp. 1-72 McLaughlin, F.A., E.C. Carmack, R.W. Macdonald & J.K.B. Bishop, "Physical and geochemical properties across the Atlantic/Pacific water mass front in the southern Canadian Basin." Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(C1) (1996): 1183-1197

Morrison, J., M. Steele & R. Andersen, "Hydrography of the upper Arctic Ocean measured from the nuclear submarine USS Pargo." Deep-Sea Research I, 45(1) (1998): 15-38 Rudels, B. & H.J. Friedrich, "The Transformations of Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean and Their Significance for the Freshwater Budget." In The Freshwater Budget of the Arctic Ocean, edited by E.L. Lewis et al., Boston: Kluwer, 2000, pp. 503-532

Rudels, B., E.P. Jones, L.G. Anderson & G. Kattner "On the Intermediate Depth Waters of the Arctic Ocean." In The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment, edited by O.M. Johannessen, R.D. Muench & J.E. Overland, Washington, District of Columbia: American Geophysical Union, 1994, pp. 33-46 Rothrock, D.A., Y. Yu & G.A. Maykut, "Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover." Geophysics Research Letters, 26(23) (1999): 3469-3472

Treshnikov, A.F., "Water Masses of the Arctic Basin." In Polar Oceans, edited by M. Dunbar, Calgary: AINA, 1977, pp. 17-31

Woodgate, R.A. et al., "The Arctic Ocean Boundary Current along the Eurasian slope and adjacent Lomonosov Ridge: water mass properties, transports and transformations from moored instruments." Deep-Sea Research, 48(8) (2000): 1757-1792

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