Modern Chuvans speak the Chukchi language and/or Russian. The original Chuvan language, which became extinct during the 19th century, was closely related to the Yukagir language and probably closest to modern tundra Yukagir. Some authors assign it to a dialect of the Yukagir language, while others prefer to consider it a distinct language of a so-called Yukagir-Chuvan group. Views among linguists also diverge when it comes to defining the parent language family; the Yukagir-Chuvan languages are either considered as isolated languages or as belonging to the Uralic language family. In any case, there is a distinct Uralic influence.

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