General Factors Affecting Coastal Erosion

In general, coastal erosion is a function of shoreline exposure, atmospheric and ocean climate, and resistance to erosion. Exposure is determined by coastal topography, which defines the maximum extent of open water in various directions from a given point on the coast (in the absence of sea ice), and by bathymet-ric features affecting coastal currents and wave transformation across the shoreface. In the long term, it may also be affected by changing mean sea level. Climatic factors include temperature, precipitation, wind, storm surge, and ocean wave regimes, all of which may affect erosion rates and processes in the north. Coastal resistance to erosion is primarily a function of geology, including substrate lithology and geotechnical properties, but also depends on the adjustment of coastal morphology to environmental forcing and sediment supply.

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