Both groups of Chuvans have preserved much of their traditional folklore and folk tales, which bring together fictional and real historical events. From Kamchatkan Cossacks, they adopted the dramatic Russian game Lodka (The Boat), which has been performed in Markovo since the 19th century. A unique folk choir has existed since the 1930s, which has been called Markovskie Vechorki (Markovo Evening Assembly) since 1967. The first Chuvan school was established in Markovo in 1883; a decade later the teacher M.F. D'iachkov wrote a book on the history and ethnography of the Anadyr District.

Wlnfried K. Dallmann

See also Chukchi; Russian "Old Settlers"; Yukagir Further Reading

D'iachkov, M.F., Anadyrskii krai. Rukopis' zhitelia s. Markovo D'iachkova [The Anadyr region. A manuscript of the local dweller Markovo D'iachkov], Vladivostok: 1893 Gurvich, I.S., "Iukagiry chuvanskogo roda v seredine XVIII v. [Yukagirs of the Chuvan clan in the middle of the 18 th century]." Trudy instituta etnografii, 35 (1966): 250-262

-, "Chuvantsy (The Chuvans)." Etnograficheskoe obozre-

nie, No.5 (1992): 76-83 Gurvich, I.S. & E.P. Bat'ianova, "Sovremennoe razvitie mezhnatsional'nykh otnoshenii v Chukotskom avtonom-nom okruge" [Modern developments in interethnic relations in the Chukotkan autonomous area], Issledovaniia po prikladnoi neotlozhnoi etnologii, dokument No. 16, Moscow, 1991

Iokhel'son, V.I., "Iukagiry i chuvantsy" (The Yukagirs and Chuvans). In Iazyk - mif - kultura narodov Sibiri [Language, myths and culture of the Siberian peoples], Volume 3, Yakutsk: Iakutskii gos, universitet 1994, pp. 227-230 Krupnik, I., "Chuvans."In Encyclopedia of World Cultures, Volume 6, edited by D. Levinson, Boston: G.K. Hall, 1991-1996, pp. 79-83 Leontiev, V.V., Khoziaistvo i kul'tura narodov hukotki (1895-1970 gg.) [Economy and culture of the peoples of Chukotka (1895-1970)], Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1973 Shentalinskaia, T.S., Markovskie vechorki, Magadan: 1983 Tugolukov, V.A., "Poezdka k chuvantsam [Journey to the Chuvan region]." In Polevye issledovaniia Instituta etno-grafii AN SSSR, 1974 [Field research of the Institute of Ethnography of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1974], Moscow: Nauka, 1975, pp. 180-189


At present, Arctic ecosystems face a variety of threats from many different human activities. A more mobile and expanding indigenous human population is imposing greater demands on the sustainable use of natural resources, while increasing numbers of external interests such as resource development and tourism place far greater pressures on these fragile ecosystems. Global climate change is likely to shift existing bio-geographical boundaries such as the northern boundary of the treeline, and thaw permafrost, releasing organic soil materials otherwise locked away from the general carbon cycle. Each could in turn cause feedback changes in global atmosphere and hydrological mechanisms.

The need to monitor the extent and nature of Arctic vegetation in relation to climate change, land planning issues, and conservation management of Arctic biota and biodiversity was acknowledged in the early 1990s. Experts participating in an international workshop in Boulder, Colorado, in 1992 on the Classification of Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation identified the need for a single unified vegetation classification for polar areas and recommended the compilation of a map of the agreed types using common mapping methods. Independently of the Boulder workshop, the eight founder member nations of CAFF (the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna under the then Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, now part of the Arctic Council) identified "the conservation of the Arctic flora and fauna, their diversity and their habitats" as one of their five major goals at their inaugural meeting in Ottawa in 1992. Under this objective, CAFF recognized the urgent need to address the general lack of data on Arctic vegetation and the chronic incompatibility of the classification systems in use at that time at the circumpolar level. The compilation of a Circumpolar

Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) offered a process of resolving many of these conflicts, as well as providing a tangible end product of immediate benefit to many potential user groups.

From these initial beginnings, the CAVM has grown to a major international initiative. The project is now funded through the Arctic System Science (ARCSS) program of the National Science Foundation in the United States, with additional funding from Canada, Norway, Greenland, Russia, and Iceland. The four basic objectives of the CAVM program are to produce (1) an internationally accepted geobotanical concept of circumpolar Arctic vegetation distribution and zonation for the whole Arctic territory, (2) a photo-quality, cloud-free and snow-free, false-color infrared image of the circumpolar region derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR covering visible, infrared, and far red spectra) satellite imagery, (3) a map of the relative vegetation greenness (i.e., biomass) of the circumpolar region as portrayed by the maximum normalized difference vegetation index, and (4) a geobotanical database and derived maps of the circumpolar Arctic region. The database will consist of an integrated map coded with landscape and vegetation information as interpreted on an AVHRR base map at 1:4,000,000 scale and reduced to 1:7,500,000 scale.

The vegetation map is derived from infrared satellite remote sensing data at 1 km x 1 km pixels. Vegetation is interpreted from the satellite data and from existing maps of bedrock geology, surface geology, soils, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, and previous vegetation mapping. Regional experts in Canada, Norway, Greenland, Russia, Iceland, and the United States use uniform methods to compile the initial maps for later, continental-scale synthesis. Close coordination with other continental and circumpolar vegetation efforts is achieved through the Pan-Arctic Flora project, CAFF, the European vegetation mapping effort, and the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Classification to ensure the adoption of common standards and protocols. Following three international CAVM workshops and one North American workshop, the first circumpolar synthesis base map was published in 2002. The large-scale map shows 18 vegetation categories, defined by dominant plant growth form, dominant moisture regime, characteristic plant communities, and a characteristic degree of vegetation cover. The level of detail varies due to variations in mapping approach, and areas such as Greenland need further mapping.

The circumpolar map will represent a key component of circumpolar GIS databases and form the basis of a unifying framework for smaller regional maps useful for natural resource development, wildlife habitat mapping, paleoecological reconstruction, and maps of anthropogenic impacts upon landscapes.

Tony Fox

See also Flora of the Tundra; Vegetation Distribution Further Reading

The Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map (CAVM) project website: Walker, D.A., "Toward a new circumpolar Arctic vegetation map: St Petersburg Workshop." Arctic and Alpine Research, 31 (1995): 169-178 -"An integrated vegetation mapping approach for northern Alaska (1:4,000,000 scale)." International Journal of Remote Sensing, 20 (1999): 2895-2920 Walker, D.A. & A.C. Lillie, "Proceedings of the Second Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Mapping Workshop, Arendal, Norway, May 19-24, 1996 and the CAVM-North American Workshop, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, January 14-16, 1997, "INSTAAR Occasional Paper 52, 1997 Walker, D.A., C. Bay, F.J.A. Daniels, E. Einarsson, A. Elvebakk, B.E. Johansen, A. Kapitsa, S.S. Kholod, D.F. Murray, S.S. Talbot, B.A. Yurtsev & S.C. Zoltai, "Toward a new arctic vegetation map: review of existing maps." Journal of Vegetation Science, 6 (1995): 427-436 Walker, M.D., F.J.A. Daniels & E. van der Maarel (editors), "Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation." Special Features in Vegetation Science 7, Uppsala: Opulus Press; Journal of Vegetation Science, 5 (1995): 6 Walker, D.A., W.A. Gould, H.A. Maier & M.K. Raynolds, "The Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map: AVHRR-derived base maps, environmental controls, and integrated mapping procedures." International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23 (2002): 4551-4570


This professional association representing over 30 universities from across the northern circumpolar area came into existence in 1989 at a founding conference at Lakehead University in Canada. Its primary purpose has been to bring together, on a regular basis, administrators, faculty, and scholars from northern regions to exchange ideas and present research findings related to the impact of higher education on northern communities and regions. It has also encouraged collaborative investigations of social, economic, political, and environmental issues and concerns that have special relevance to northern areas of the world. It has sought to demonstrate how the northern circumpolar universities may respond effectively to these challenges. The Circumpolar Universities Association (CUA) has been an advocate for expanding higher educational opportunities in the north. In most recent years, it has lent its support to the creation of the new University of the Arctic.

The CUA came into existence through the guiding efforts of Professors Geoffrey Weller (Canada), Esko

Riepula (Finland), and Douglas Nord (USA). These three northern university administrators and researchers had conducted joint investigations on the roles of new universities in the north throughout the decade of the 1980s. They came to the conclusion that there was an urgent need for administrators and scholars from these new institutions to share their experiences and insights with one another as well as to regularly assess the impact and progress of their universities on a comparative basis. With this in mind, the First Circumpolar Universities Cooperation Conference was convened in 1989 in northern Ontario with representatives from 15 universities from Canada, the United States, the USSR, and the Nordic countries in attendance and presenting their research findings related to the work of their northern educational institutions. This gathering was followed up by second and third conferences in Tyumen, Russia (1991) and Rovaniemi, Finland (1992). At the latter session, held at the University of Lapland, a formal constitution and governing council for the CUA was established. At its next meeting at the University of Northern British Columbia (1995), a continuing secretariat for the organization was created. The agenda for research presentations was also expanded to include northern health and aboriginal concerns. The CUA has convened four additional times since 1995—at the Luleá Technological University in Sweden (1997), the University of Aberdeen in Scotland (1999), the University of Troms0 in Norway (2001), and most recently at the Yukon College, Canada (2003). Proceedings from most of the sessions have been published and are available through the host institutions.

The CUA continues to be a strong voice on behalf of postsecondary education in the north. Its membership continues to expand and its influence in directing public attention to northern concerns has steadily grown. Recent conferences have addressed issues related to the roles that universities in northern regions can play in preserving local histories, diversifying regional economies, and assisting northern communities in accessing information technology.

Douglas C. Nord

See also Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies (ACUNS); University of the Arctic

Further Reading

Circumpolar Universities Association website:

Nord, D.C. & G.R. Weller (editors), Higher Education Across the Circumpolar North: A Circle of Learning, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002 Weller, G.R., "The Association of Circumpolar Universities." In Learning to be Circumpolar: Experiences in Arctic Academic Cooperation, edited by Richard Langlais and Outi Snellman, Rovaniemi: University of Lapland Press, 1998, pp. 129-135


Douglas Charles Clavering commanded the sloop HMS Griper during a voyage of exploration to Spitsbergen and the east coast of Greenland in 1823. The voyage is notable in that it was primarily undertaken for the British astronomer Sir Edward Sabine to conduct detailed measurements on the timing of the pendulum at a series of sites in the High Arctic, thereby complementing a series of similar measurements taken earlier at other widely separated geographical locations. Clavering's orders were to "proceed to Norway, about the latitude of 70°, where Captain Sabine will make observations upon the pendulum. ... make the best of your way along the west coast of Spitzbergen and . about the parallel of 80° make further observations. . proceed, if the ice will permit, . to the east coast of Greenland . proceed northerly as far as the ice will allow ... afford Captain Sabine opportunity of repeating his experiments . in the highest latitudes that can be safely reached. . it is our intention . that you should return to England at the close of this season" (Clavering, 1830).

Clavering's achievements thus lie within the shadow of Sabine, who subsequently produced several seminal publications of his work. His journal largely eschewed mention of the pendulum experiments, merely providing a concise narrative of events; nevertheless, his geographical survey data, gathered during the voyage, were combined with those of William Scoresby Jr., the whaling captain and explorer who had visited East Greenland in the previous year, to produce the first reliable chart of the East Greenland coast from latitude 69 to 76° N

Following a brief but eventful early naval career, Clavering met Sir Edward Sabine in 1821, while en route to assume a new command in West Africa. Sabine, a highly regarded natural scientist, was engaged in making observations on the variation in the timing of the pendulum at different geographical stations representing a range of latitudes and longitudes. During their subsequent voyage together on HMS Pheasant, a deep respect and friendship developed between the two men. Clavering, with his careful handling of delicate instruments while setting up pendulum stations on land and his highly accurate navigation at sea, proved an ideal complement for the experimental expertise of Sabine. Sabine thus requested Clavering as Commander of HMS Griper to accompany him on his expedition to study pendulum movement in the high Arctic. Griper was the ice-strengthened ship that had accompanied Sir William Parry on his first Arctic expedition.

Clavering sailed from Deptford, London and after some delays eventually left the Thames estuary on May 11, 1823, arriving in Hammerfest, Norway on June 2 where he received intelligence that the pack ice along western Spitsbergen was unusually open. The required pendulum observations were made before the Griper left Hammerfest on June 23, 1823. Passing Bj0rn0ya (known as "Cherry Island" to Clavering and his contemporaries) on June 27, they rounded Haklyutodden, the northern headland of Amsterdam0ya, NW Spitsbergen on June 30. Abandoning their initial intention of setting up the pendulum observatory in Magdalenefjord, a small party was put ashore for this purpose on a small rocky island in Fair Haven that had previously been used by Constantine John Phipps on his attempt to reach the North Pole for the same purpose. Clavering then attempted to sail northward beyond the "farthest norths" of Phipps and Captain David Buchan, but only attained 80°21' N before returning to rendezvous with the shore party on July 11,1823. With his primary purpose on Spitsbergen completed, Clavering sailed on July 22 for Gael Hamke's Bay, East Greenland (74° N), sighting the coast on August 4 and landing at Cape Borlase Warren on August 8,1823. However, progress northward was impeded by ice and, from a high point on Shannon Island, Clavering observed high land as far as 76° N. Returning southwest to Sabine 0ya in the Pendulum Islands, Sabine's party was set ashore to make their pendulum measurements while Clavering set out in two small boats, provisioned for three weeks, to explore and survey the coast. Traveling southward he met and traded with groups of Inuit, visiting the island that was later to bear his name. This is probably one of the earliest recorded meetings between Europeans and Inuit in North East Greenland. He returned to the Griper after an absence of 13 days on August 29, 1823 and, after re-embarking the shore party, sailed on August 31. They made their way south along the coastline as far as Cape Parry, making occasional shore excursions to observe the trend of the land from high ground, such as at Cape Broer Ruys. Leaving Greenland waters on September 13, the Griper reached Trondheim Norway on October 6, where further pendulum observations were made, before Deptford was finally reached on December 19.

A remarkable event, unrecorded in Clavering's or Sabine's writings, has recently come to light in a manuscript notebook of the voyage written by Archibald Smith of Glasgow. He recounts that Clavering's shore party, set down in northwest Spitsbergen, somewhere near Fair Haven, unearthed a largely undecomposed body from a much earlier burial. The body bore the name of Henry Hudson, and it was surmised, improbably but not impossibly, that this was the undiscovered remains of the Arctic explorer set adrift by his crew in Hudson Bay, Canada, in 1611. The body was apparently taken aboard for shipment back to England but was later thrown overboard as it began to decompose.

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