As is typical of Arctic marine environments, the Baffin Bay ecosystem is characterized by low productivity, low populations, and few trophic levels. Plankton are the primary producers, while primary consumers include crustaceans, molluscs, fish (char, turbot, Arctic cod), and bowhead whales. Secondary consumers include ringed seals, harp seals, walrus, narwhal, killer whales, and beluga whales. The Baffin Bay whale population remains very low as a result of excessive harvesting before 1900. Polar bears can be found along the shores of Baffin Bay.

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