In the post-Soviet period (after 1991), a program of privatization was launched in 1992. Collective farms were privatized, although nothing prepared the farmers for this change. Farms had to be viable and pay regular salaries, but some did not have any transport equipment for meat production. Since 1999, farms have been re-nationalized. Reindeer pastoralism suffered dramatically from these constant and inconsistent changes. Whereas in 1991, after a small decrease, there were still 465,000 reindeer, less than 100,000 remained in 2001.
Modern Chukchi society is not homogeneous: the population is divided among coastal villages, tundra encampments, and herder villages, but there are also urban settlements. In 1990, the association of Lesser-Numbered Peoples of Chukotka was created, representing all the minorities of the region. Small associations have been founded dealing with different issues, such as Chychetkin Vetgav ("native word"), which attempts to revive the use of Chukchi language and Doverie ("confidence"), which deals with the problem of alcoholism.
Contemporary Chukchi authors, such as Yuri Rytkheu, Valentina Veqet, or Ivan Omruvié, promote an understanding of Chukchi life, and their works have been translated into foreign languages.
See also Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (Chukotka); Chukchi-Kamchadal Languages; Collectivization; Iokhel'son, Vladimir Il'ich; Koryak; Reindeer Pas-toralism; Rytkheu, Yuri
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CHUKCHI AUTONOMOUS OKRUG (CHUKOTKA)
Chukchi Autonomous Okrug is the most northeasterly region of the Russian Federation, a territory of 737,700 km2 located between 62° N and 72° N and separated from Alaska by the Bering Strait, a distance of 40 km at its narrowest. Over half of Chukotka is north of the Arctic Circle, and it shares land borders with the Sakha Republic, Magadan Oblast', and the Koryak Autonomous Okrug.
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Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.