Contemporary Society

In the post-Soviet period (after 1991), a program of privatization was launched in 1992. Collective farms were privatized, although nothing prepared the farmers for this change. Farms had to be viable and pay regular salaries, but some did not have any transport equipment for meat production. Since 1999, farms have been re-nationalized. Reindeer pastoralism suffered dramatically from these constant and inconsistent changes. Whereas in 1991, after a small decrease, there were still 465,000 reindeer, less than 100,000 remained in 2001.

Modern Chukchi society is not homogeneous: the population is divided among coastal villages, tundra encampments, and herder villages, but there are also urban settlements. In 1990, the association of Lesser-Numbered Peoples of Chukotka was created, representing all the minorities of the region. Small associations have been founded dealing with different issues, such as Chychetkin Vetgav ("native word"), which attempts to revive the use of Chukchi language and Doverie ("confidence"), which deals with the problem of alcoholism.

Contemporary Chukchi authors, such as Yuri Rytkheu, Valentina Veqet, or Ivan Omruvié, promote an understanding of Chukchi life, and their works have been translated into foreign languages.

Virginie Vaté

See also Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (Chukotka); Chukchi-Kamchadal Languages; Collectivization; Iokhel'son, Vladimir Il'ich; Koryak; Reindeer Pas-toralism; Rytkheu, Yuri

Further Reading

Antropova, V.V. & V.G. Kuznetsova, "The Chukchi." In The Peoples of Siberia, edited by M.G. Levin & L.P. Potapov, from the 1956 edition in Russian Narody Sibiri, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964 Bogoras, W., The Chukchee, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, New York: G. E. Stechert, Leiden: Brill, 1904; reprinted New York: AMS Press, 1975 Fitzhugh, W.W & A. Crowell (editors), Crossroads of Continents, Cultures of Siberia and Alaska, Kingsport: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988 Forsyth, J., A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony (1581-1990), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992 Gray, P.A., "Chukotkan reindeer husbandry in the post socialist transition." Polar Research, 19(1) (2000) Jakobson, R., "The Paleosiberian languages." American

Anthropologist, 44(4) (1942): 601-620 Krupnik, I.I., Arctic Adaptations: Native Whalers and Reindeer Herders of Northern Eurasia, Hanover: University Press of New England, 1993 Krupnik, I.I. & W.W. Fitzhugh (editors), Gateways. Exploring the Legacy of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition, 1897-1902, Contribution to Circumpolar Anthropology 1, Washington, District of Columbia: Arctic Studies Center, 2001 Schweitzer, P.P. & P.A. Gray, "The Chukchi and the Siberian Yupiit of the Russian Far East." In Endangered Peoples of the Arctic: Struggles to Survive and Thrive, edited by M.R. Milton, Freeman, Westport: Greenwood Press, 2000

Turaev, V.A. & M.Ia. Zhornitaskaia, "Chukchi." In Narody Rossii, entsyklopediia, edited by V.A. Tishkov, Moskva: Bol'shaia Rossiiskaia Entsyklopediia, 1994 Vakhtin, Nikolai, "Native Peoples of the Russian Far North." In Polar Peoples: Self Determination and Development, edited by Mark Nuttall, London: Minority Rights Group, 1994

Vdovin, I.S., Ocherki istorii i etnografii Chukchei, Moskva-

Leningrad: Nauka, 1965 Znamenski, A.A., "'Vague sense of belonging to the Russian Empire': the reindeer Chukchi's status in nineteenth Century northeastern Siberia." Arctic Anthropology, 36(1-2) (1999): 19-36


Chukchi Autonomous Okrug is the most northeasterly region of the Russian Federation, a territory of 737,700 km2 located between 62° N and 72° N and separated from Alaska by the Bering Strait, a distance of 40 km at its narrowest. Over half of Chukotka is north of the Arctic Circle, and it shares land borders with the Sakha Republic, Magadan Oblast', and the Koryak Autonomous Okrug.

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Do you love a drink from time to time? A lot of us do, often when socializing with acquaintances and loved ones. Drinking may be beneficial or harmful, depending upon your age and health status, and, naturally, how much you drink.

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