Born in London on August 1, 1867, W.S. Bruce was the fourth of eight children. His father, Dr. Samuel Bruce, was a doctor in general practice. Though born in England, the family on his father's side were Scots, his grandfather a Scots minister and his grandmother hailing from Orkney. His early education was at home, and he was 11 before he entered mainstream education, at a private boarding school in Norfolk. He studied medicine at Edinburgh University. He married Jessie Mackenzie in 1902. They established a home in Joppa on the Firth of Forth, outside Edinburgh, and had a son Eillium Allistair (1902-1979) and a daughter Sheila Mackenzie Bruce (1909- ).

Jim Conroy

See also Franz Josef Land; Markham, Sir Clements R.; Nansen, Fridtjof

Further Reading

Brown, R.N. Rudmose, A Naturalist at the Poles: The Life, Work & Voyages of Dr. W.S. Bruce the Polar Explorer, London: Seeley, Service & Co. Ltd., 1923 Bruce, William Spears, The Log of the Scotia Expedition, 1902-4, edited by Peter Speak, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992 Rudmose Brown, R.N., J.H.H. Pirie & R.C. Mossman, The Voyage of the Scotia, Edinburgh: Mercat Press, 2002

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