The Arctic territories of Canada (include Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and the northern parts of the provinces) function as hinterlands for the southern provinces. The main production consists of minerals and energy. The Newfoundland fisheries can also be considered a main production. While minerals and energy are subject to volatile price development, fisheries are volatile to cycles in quantities. The density of population is extremely low and there are no real large town concentrations. Many different peoples live in the Canadian North, and economic development and land claims policy have been interwoven. Military bases have contributed to economic stability. Transfer income and subsidies as well as labor from outside the Arctic are still extremely important elements of economic development. The average income level and average imputed gross domestic income have increased, but the level as well as growth rates are lower in the Arctic areas than in the respective provinces. Mining and energy corporation activities in the Canadian North are of fundamental importance for Canadian economic development. Canada has placed emphasis on sustainable development and cleaning up after mining pollution (and today has laws and a juridical system to secure sustainable mining and energy production) as well as on a comprehensive number of land claims settlements and an increasing awareness of indigenous peoples' rights. In both Canada and the rest of the Arctic world, much attention has been given to the creation and economic development of Nunavut, and it is likely that this model will be the learning case for economic development in the Canadian North in the coming years.
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