Anadyr is the capital of the Chukchi Autonomous Okrug in the Russian Far East and of the district of Anadyr (Anadyrskii Raion, one of the eight districts of Chukotka). Anadyr is also the name of a 1150 km long river, a plain, a plateau, a bay of the Bering Sea, and a mountain range in the region.

The port city of Anadyr is located at 64°47' N and 177°34' E at the estuary of the river Anadyr, which flows into the Bering Sea. Anadyr is located in a tundra area and is subject to strong winds coming from the sea and an unstable atmospheric pressure, with many violent storms. The climate is harsh, with long cold winters and short summers, and an average annual temperature of -7.7°C. The lowest and highest temperatures recorded in the city are -44.6°C and 28.2°C.

The population of Anadyr, the largest city in Chukotka, has decreased in recent years: in 1989, 16,450 inhabitants lived in the city, but by the beginning of 2001 approximately 11,200 remained. A great majority of the citizens of Anadyr are incomers (Russian and Ukrainian); indigenous people represent only 1641 people (in 2001, according to The Association of Indigenous Peoples of Chukotka): 1020 Chukchi, 280 Chuvans, 149 Evens (also called Lamuts), 113 Eskimos or Yupiget, 38 Yukagirs, 19 Koryaks, 18 Yakuts, and 4 Kamchadals-Itel'men. With the rehabilitation of the city starting from 2001, the population of the city is expected to stabilize or possibly grow.

Anadyr, initially called Novo-Mariinsk, was founded in August 1889 by L.F. Grinevetskii (1853-1891), first administrative chief of the region of Chukotka. It was built near the Chukchi village V"en, which remains today the Chukchi name of the city. At that time, it consisted of one house and three iaranga—the Chukchi traditional tent made of reindeer skins. Novo-Mariinsk was a border post, protecting state warehouses. It became the county town of the region.

In 1919, the Revolutionary Committee (revkom) of Anadyr was created, as the first organ of Soviet power in Chukotka. At that time, around 300 inhabitants were living in Novo-Mariinsk. In January 1920, members of

the committee, led by Mikhail Sergeevich Mandrikov, were shot by local Russian traders, who disapproved of the Bolsheviks nationalizing fisheries and canceling the natives' debts to them. In August, the village was taken back by Soviet power. Mandrikov and members of the first Revkom became local heroes. Today, one of the few sights of the city is a monument that was erected in 1969 in their honor.

In 1923, Novo-Mariinsk was renamed Anadyr, after the first fort (Anadyrsky Ostrog) established in 1649 by Semyon Dezhnev, derived from a Yukagir toponym (place name). In 1930, Anadyr became the center of the newly created National Region of Chukotka (chukotskij natsional'nyi okrug). It received the status of a city (gorod) in January 1965.

The main streets of Anadyr were named in memory of the first indigenous representatives of the party: Otke (1913-1955), Tevlianto (1905-1959), and Ivan Rultetegin (1924-1962).

At the end of the 1950s, Anadyr grew very rapidly. The expansion of the city accelerated due to the development of air transport in the 1960s and the building of the port in 1961. Today, Anadyr airport connects services with Moscow and the main villages of the districts of Chukotka.

Anadyr is a place where native writers, whose works have been translated in foreign languages, have chosen to live, such as the Chukchi Valentina Veqet (born 1934) and Ivan Omruvie (1940), and the Eskimo poets Tatiana Achirgina (1944) and Zoia Nenliumkina (1950).

With new investments, the city of Anadyr has undergone radical changes: it has new hotels, new shops, and new facilities in the area of medical care, culture, education, administration, and services.

Virginie Vate

See also Anadyr River; Chukchi Autonomous Okrug (Chukotka); Dezhnev, Semyon

Further Reading

City of Anadyr website: Forsyth, James, A History of the Peoples of Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony (1581-1990), Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992 Rastorgueva, O.B. & I.V. Kolonteeva, Anadyr, Magadanskaia oblastnaia biblioteka im, Magadan: A.S. Puskina, 1989 Vdovin, I.S., "Iz istorii russkikh na Anadyre v XVII-XVIII vv." In Etnokul'turnye kontakty narodov Sibiri, edited by Ch.M. Taksami, Leningrad: Nauka, 1984, pp. 5-13

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